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Facilitation Tools to Make Your Job Easier! September 20, 2011 Facilitator Ann M. Delehant 1001 Hillsboro Cove Circle Webster, NY 14580 585-248-2587

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Presentation on theme: "Facilitation Tools to Make Your Job Easier! September 20, 2011 Facilitator Ann M. Delehant 1001 Hillsboro Cove Circle Webster, NY 14580 585-248-2587"— Presentation transcript:

1 Facilitation Tools to Make Your Job Easier! September 20, 2011 Facilitator Ann M. Delehant 1001 Hillsboro Cove Circle Webster, NY

2 Facilitation Tools to Make Your Job Easier! Participants will review basic tools for facilitating efficient and effective meetings during this Action Lab. We will identify possible causes of resistance and define strategies for facilitating groups experiencing resistance. We will also review four styles of decision-making and discuss appropriate uses of each establishing a process for defining “who” gets to make “what” decisions. Participants will reflect upon how and when to use these ideas. 2

3 Participants will...  Identify causes of resistance and determine processes to respond.  Discuss decision making styles and determine WHO gets to make WHAT decisions.  Introduce facilitation tools that will make your team meetings more interesting and more fun.  Reflect upon how you will use the information learned in this program. 3

4 Building a Collaborative Culture RESISTANC E 4

5 People in Groups People in Groups (E. Rodgers) 5  8% will be innovators.  17% will be leaders.  29% will be early adopters.  29% will be late adopters.  17% will be resisters.

6 Task #1: Resistance Brainstorm common causes of resistance in schools and departments. 6

7 Overcoming Resistance (Ann Kilcher and Lawrence Ryan, Padaia Group, 1996) People don’t know what to do (lack of knowledge). People don’t know how to do it (lack of skills/ abilities). People don’t know why they are doing it (the purpose). The workload and work pressure are increasing. People can’t see the benefits of changing. People are not involved in decision making. People don’t experience support. The innovation conflicts with the school culture. People are worried about failure. People are satisfied with the way things are. People don’t see the change agent or advocate as credible. People have a negative past experience with change. 7

8 Resistance To Change: Reasons and Strategies (Ann Kilcher and Lawrence Ryan, Padaia Group, 1996) 8 1. People don't know what to do (lack of knowledge) share information with everyone involved. provide reading and set up study groups. conduct knowledge-building seminars. hold question and answer sessions. share inside knowledge and reach outward for expertise. 2. People don't know how to do it (lack of skills/abilities) provide high quality up-front training. provide on-going skill-building training sessions. provide opportunities for feedback and coaching. sponsor problem-solving groups. encourage visitations to other classrooms and schools so people can see the innovation in action.

9 Resistance To Change: Reasons And Strategies 9 3. People don't know why (the purpose) explain the rationale. talk about where it has made a difference--cite examples from practice and research. explain where it fits in the bigger picture. articulate anticipated outcomes. 4.People are not involved in decision making. provide opportunities for involvement in decisions, learn a variety of decision making strategies (consultation, majority rules, consensus). share the leadership among faculty members. involve staff in the generation of ideas before making decisions. establish a collaborative decision making model that spells out who makes what decisions and how decisions will be made.

10 Resistance To Change: Reasons And Strategies 10 5.People are satisfied with the way things are. create an alternative future picture (build creative tension.) clarify and raise your expectations (walk your talk.) take a hard, honest look at the data (results.) share success stories. reward change and risk taking. 6.Workload and work pressure get focused on common goals. periodically conduct a school review - make decisions around what you should "stop" --"start" -- "continue" doing. reorganize human capital (Align work with people in an equitable way.) promote more teamwork and a collaborative work culture. support individuals under pressure.

11 Resistance To Change: Reasons And Strategies People can't see the benefits of changing. do a cost benefit analysis of the change. conduct a S.W.O.T. (identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.) be up-front about the disadvantages. provide real life stories and examples where benefits have been achieved. identify strategies to counteract costs. collect data and monitor implementation.

12 Resistance To Change: Reasons And Strategies 12 8.People don't see the changing agent or advocate as credible. do a cost benefit analysis of the chance match the innovation with knowledgeable and motivated change agents. involve people who are respected by their colleagues. choose people who have a track record to manage and facilitate change projects. give change agents hard feedback. ensure change agents receive high quality training on the innovation and the change process.

13 Resistance To Change: Reasons And Strategies People don't experience support. conduct a human resources needs assessment. develop an implementation plan that builds in human and material resources. provide recognition and rewards. address the time issue and make changes. provide incentives for change. monitor implementation.

14 Resistance To Change: Reasons And Strategies The innovation conflicts with the school culture. conduct a human resources needs assessment. talk about the innovation or change - establish how to gradually introduce changes. talk about the school culture and how it can support the change. "How will current beliefs, expectations, or behavior patterns block the change? identify forces for and against change in the school. conduct a discussion on implementation of the change. involve key cultural players " in the initiation and implementation process."

15 Resistance to Change: Reasons and Strategies People are worried about failure. promote a risk-taking mind set - use it as a guiding principle. help people accept and understand that with change comes increased anxiety - it's okay and it's natural. conduct "anticipation meetings.” Talk about the implications or consequences of failing, identify false assumptions and unfounded fears. allow people an opportunity to express fears - let them talk it out. Ask "What is the worst case scenario? What is the best case scenario?

16 Resistance to Change: Reasons and Strategies People have a negative experience with change. encourage people to talk about what happened in the past. ask people to identify how this change is similar and how the change is different from others in the past. find out what will build their trust--act on their wants and needs. build their confidence that this will turn out differently. build in monitoring and evaluation processes to ensure feedback. discuss "What will happen if we don't implement the change?”

17 Resistance Mauer, When we face resistance, most of us react with an assortment of ineffective approaches. These are default positions: 1.Use power 2.Manipulate those who oppose 3.Apply force of reason 4.Ignore resistance 5.Play off relationships 6.Make deals 7.Kill the messenger 8.Give in too soon

18 Why Default Strategies Don’t Work 18 And, may escalate…. 1.They increase resistance 2.The win might not be worth the cost 3.They fail to create synergy 4.They create fear and suspension 5.They separate us from others

19 Getting Beyond the Resistance Mauer, POSSIBILITIES Maintain clear focus Keep long and short term view Persevere Embrace resistance Counterintuitive response Understand the voice of resistance Respect those who resist Listen with interest Tell the truth Relax Stay calm and stay engaged Know their intentions Join with the resistance Begin together Change the game Find themes and possibilities

20 TASK #2: Identify the three major causes for resistance based on your experience. Discuss strategies for reducing the resistance. 20 ResistanceStrategies to Overcome Resistance

21 Decision Making Model o Review styles of decision making. oDiscuss appropriate uses of each. oDiscuss “who” gets to make “what” decisions? 21

22 Autocratic  You make the decision alone.  You rely on your personal experience and available information.  You may obtain information from others.  You may inform others of the problem.  You accept full responsibility for the decision. When would you utilize an autocratic style of decision making? 22

23 Consultive  You share the problem with others on an individual or a collective basis.  You solicit others' ideas or suggestions.  You make a decision that may or may not reflect others' input. When would you utilize a consultive style of decision making? 23

24 Majority Rules/Percentage Votes  You share and discuss the problem.  The minority accepts the decision of the majority.  The group determines the percentage that will be accepted as a positive vote. When would you utilize a majority rule/% vote style of decision making? 24

25 Consensus  You share the problem with teams or colleagues.  The group generates and evaluates alternatives.  Every person in the group has an opportunity to express his/her opinion.  You do not use undue influence with the group or block other points of view.  You agree to accept, support and implement the decision of the group. When would you utilize a consensus style of decision making? 25

26 Will of the Group We have arrived at a decision when all points of view have been heard and the will of the group is evident, even to those who most oppose it. (R. DuFour) Directions: I will present a proposal and ask for a “Fist of Five” response from all participants. Fist means I hate it. 1 finger meansI don’t support it. 2 fingers meansI don’t like it. 3 fingers meansI can support it. 4 fingers means I like it. 5 fingers meansI am very excited about it. 26

27 Will of the Group If most people have 3, 4, or 5 fingers, the facilitator will discuss the concerns with those who have 2 or fewer fingers. Ideas for changes will be considered. If the ideas strengthen the proposal and generate more support, the proposed changes will be incorporated. The facilitator will ask one of the people with “less ownership” of the idea to report the “will of the group.” The facilitator will move forward with the “will of the group.” 27

28 WHO Gets to Make WHAT Decisions A for Approve: Who needs to approve the decision? (There may be more than one A.) R for Responsible: Who is responsible for making and implementing the decision? C for Consult: Who needs to be consulted before the decision is made? I for Inform: Who needs to be told about the decision? O for Out of the Loop: These are individuals or groups who do not need to be consulted. p

29 Task #3: Decision Making Matrix Identify decisions that need to be made. Discuss “Who” gets to make “What” decisions?) IssueGivens-- contracts, policies, regulations Board of Education Superin- tendent, Central Office PrincipalSchool Leader- ship Team Department Heads/ Grade Level Chairs TeachersStudents Parents

30 Facilitation Tools Connecting our community Gathering and Sorting Data Action Planning 30

31 Connecting Our Community

32 F OUR C ORNER N AME T AG Two successes I experienced this past year…. A strength I bring to the role…. The greatest challenge in my role… I would like to learn more about…. Name and Role

33 Using Community Builders Why was this an effective community builder? How might you use this strategy?

34 The challenge for leaders is to help groups create meaning, see themselves as a group and foster desired actions. Requires: Planning Engagement Structures Community Builders are strategies that cue participants that their best self is required. Setting Expectations and Context for Productive Group Work

35 Task 4: Stems for the Four Corner Name Tag With a partner, record four new sentence starters for the four corner name tag that you could use in your work.

36 PLANE 36

37 Point & Go 1.What did you hear that connects with or validates your experience? 1.What do you wonder about or question?

38 Gathering and Sorting Data

39 Sorting Tools Paired Comparisons Weighting Voting Nominal Group Process Dots 39

40 Brainstorming Brainstorming is an idea-generating technique pioneered by Alex Osbourn, an advertising executive. A group of people throw out their ideas as they think of them, so that each has the opportunity to build on the ideas of others. Brainstorming results can be improved by asking participants to consider adapting, modifying, magnifying, substituting, rearranging, reversing, combining or otherwise changing ideas that have been presented. Brainstorming has four basic rules: 1. There is no evaluation of ideas. 2. Encourage wild ideas. 3. Hitchhike--build on the ideas of others. 4. Strive for quantity. The team leader presents a problem for which ideas are sought. The wording of the problem should encourage specific, tangible ideas, not abstract ideas or opinions. The facilitator should make sure that the participants understand the problem, the objective of the brainstorming session and the rules. Regardless of the method used, the output of the brainstorming session must be reviewed and evaluated. List reduction, weighted voting, paired comparisons and other tools can be used to review the ideas generated by the group There are three types of brainstorming: 1. Freewheeling is the most familiar type. Group members call out ideas spontaneously and a scribe records the ideas as they are suggested. The scribe is careful to use the words of the participants and does not “translate” ideas that have been presented. This method tends to be spontaneous, creative and allows participants to build on each others ideas. Strong individual may dominate the session and confusion may set in when people talk at once. 2. In round-robin brainstorming, the scribe asks each member, in turn, for an idea. Members may pass any round and the session continues until all members have passed during the round. All ideas are recorded. This ensures that everyone participates in the process but may place some pressure on participants to come up with ideas every time. In the round robin method, it is sometimes difficult to wait one’s turn and some may find it difficult to pass. 3. The slip method is very different. The leader asks members to write down their ideas on post-it notes or index cards. The ideas are posted on the wall and the leader asks participants to group or organize the ideas. This format allows the participants to move to the next step of organizing, grouping and prioritizing more easily than the other methods.

41 List Reduction List reduction is a method of processing all of the ideas generated during a brainstorming session. The objectives of list reduction are to clarify the options, so that all members understand them and then reduce the options to a manageable number. How to Use List Reduction Before the list of potential problems or solutions can be shortened, everyone in the group must have a clear understanding of all the items on the list. The facilitator should review each item on the list to see if there is any need for clarification. If an item needs to be explained, the person who made the suggestion should be the one to clarify. The discussion should not go beyond a simple clarification. The group may then choose to combine or "bucket" similar ideas. This can be done by clustering all of the ideas that are similar under one heading. No ideas should ever be crossed out or eliminated. This ensures that no one feels that his/her idea(s) are not valued by the group. It also allows group members to go back and review ideas later if necessary. Ideas can be bracketed when they are combined. The group may begin to reduce the list, either before or after combining, by using a series of filters to see if the problem or the solution fits criteria established by the group. The criteria are typically called filters. Some filters for selecting problems are: 1. Does this problem lend itself to being solved by a group? 2. Is this problem within our control or influence? 3. Is it worth solving? Some filters for selecting solutions are: 1. Is this solution likely to solve the problem? 2. Is it feasible? 3. Can we afford it? (don't automatically rule out solutions based on cost because there may be other ways to solve it for less money or you may be able to find other resources--however, realistically, your group should consider cost.) Your group should always establish filters each time you begin a list reduction exercise. Keeping the agreed upon criteria in mind, group members vote on each item on the list. A simple majority can keep an item on the list. Any group member can keep an item on the list if they would like the group to learn more about the idea before deciding not to consider it. Again, do not cross items out. Use brackets, { }, to reduce the list of ideas. In general, the group focuses on and continues to evaluate only the ideas that are not bracketed. The process may be repeated with different or more stringent criteria until the list is reduced to approximately 6 options. This represents a manageable number of options which can be evaluated by other tools, including weighted voting, paired comparison, balance sheets and criteria rating sheets. 41

42 Weighted Voting Weighted voting is a way to quantify the positions and preferences of group members. Weighted voting is most useful for "taking the temperature" of the group as it is working toward consensus. The approach can be used to identify the group's positions and priorities when fewer than eight or ten options are under consideration. No criteria are used. Individual members' votes are recorded; there is no discussion or effort to reach agreement on a single number. HOW TO USE WEIGHTED VOTING Set up a grid on a flip chart--team members on the vertical axis and options on the horizontal axis. Give each member a number of votes to distribute in accordance with their preferences. (As a rule of thumb, the number of votes should be 1 1/2 times the number of options.) Members then decide how to distribute their votes among the options, to indicate their relative preferences. Encourage people to spread their votes to represent their relative feelings about the options, rather than lump all their votes on a single favorite. Have members write down how they will distribute their votes before any votes are recorded on the chart. Ask for and record votes by option, not by person. Record all votes so that the group can see where the agreements and disagreements lie. Weighted voting does not make decisions. It merely gives the group information about where individual members stand, and how strongly. This information makes it easier to surface opposing viewpoints. Consensus cannot be reached without dealing with those viewpoints. WHAT WEIGHTED VOTING LOOKS LIKE: Here's an example used by a house team trying to reach consensus on four ways to spend a $20,000 grant. Each member had six votes to distribute. A B C D Sam A: A Reading Tutor Susan B: Musical Instruments Patrick C: Equipment for the Science Lab Alaina D: Field Trips Michael TOTALS:

43 Weighted Voting Format Names Options TOTALS: 43

44 Nominal Group Process When selecting which problems to work on and in what order, the problem selected is often that of the person who speaks the loudest or has the most authority. It means teams can select the wrong problem to solve. The nominal group technique provides a way to give everyone an equal voice in problem selection. 1.Have everyone on the team write or say the problem that he/she feels is most important. Record them on the flip chart or somewhere visible. (Writing the issues may protect people who do not feel comfortable naming the issue.) 2.Check with the team to make sure that the same problem has not been written twice or in slightly different words. Label each item on the list beginning with the letter A. 3.Ask the team members to write on a piece of paper the letters corresponding to the number of problem statements the team produced. If you have five problems you will have the letters A through E on your papers. 4.Everyone then rank orders the items with the most important receiving the highest number of points. With five items, you would rank order the list from five down to one. Each members ranking is then collected and totaled. The item receiving the most points is considered first. 5.If there is a long list of items, you can rank order the list with half as many points plus one as there are items on the list. If there were twenty items, you would be able to rank order only eleven items. 6.This is a simple ranking exercise. Sometimes groups use dots to set priorities in an alternative model to this process. See attached example. 44

45 Nominal Group Process Example  Critical issues identified: A. Space ______ B. Hiring_____C. Safety______ D. Diversity ______ E. Curriculum ______  Each member’s paper would look like this: A. _______ B. _______ C. _______ D. _______ E. _______  If someone thought Hiring was most important, he/she would write 5 on the line after the item for B. Hiring. If safety was second in importance it would get 4 points. Everyone completes the list by voting what’s second most important, third most important, etc.  Each member’s ranking is represented on the lip chart as shown. A. 2,5,2,4,1 B. 1,4,5,5,5 C. 4,1,3,3,4 D. 5,2,1,1,2 E. 3,3,4,2,3  Add up each line of numbers. The item with the highest number is the most important one to the total of the team. B Safety is the most important item with a total of 20. You should add up the numbers for each item and put them in order. You would work on item B first, and then move through the list. 45

46 Criteria Rating Process Criteria rating forms help individuals and groups decide the best option or options among a group of options. In problem solving groups, they are often used in problem and solutions selection. The criteria rating form can be used anytime there are criteria that will be used to inform the decision making process. It is often used by interview teams when selecting a candidate for any position or when selecting new materials/textbooks. 1. The criteria are selected by the group and a rating scale is defined. In most cases a scale of 1 to 5 is used with 5 being the most desirable. 2. Weights are assigned to each criteria depending on its importance relative to the other criteria. 3. Each potential solution is also given a rating for each criterion, and the rating is multiplied by the weight of the criterion. 4. The weighted ratings are totaled. In this case, a 5 on the scale was most desirable so the solution with the highest total is judged the best option. Remember that this is only a tool to collect data so be sure to discuss the final outcome before making the final decision, especially if the ratings are close. Criteria Rating Solutions There are a number of general criteria that can be considered when judging solutions. Control Is the group in a position to implement the solution? Effectiveness To what extend does the solution solve the problem? (How likely is it to achieve the desired state?) Customer Satisfaction Will the solution result in increased satisfaction of parents, community members, staff, students, Central Office or others? Time How long will it take to implement the solution? (Some solutions may take less time than others.) Cost of Quality To what extent will the solution reduce the cost of non-conformance? Cost Are the financial resources available to support the initiative? Acceptability Will those responsible for implementing the solution accept the solution? 46

47 Criteria Rating Form Criteria Weighting Options TOTAL: 47

48 Paired Comparisons Like weighted voting, using paired comparisons will help a group to quantify the preferences of its members. Each option (e.g., a potential solution) goes head-to-head against every other option. In each "face off", members vote for the option they prefer. Votes are recorded and totaled when all possible comparisons have been made. Set up a grid such as the one shown on the next page. The number of possible comparisons depends on the number of options. The table shows the number of comparisons for a given number of options. In each comparison, each member has one and only one vote. He or she must decide which of the two alternatives is better. (The total number of votes cast in any comparison must equal the number of people in the group.) Everyone must cast a vote in each comparison, even if neither choice is very appealing. The power of paired comparisons comes from the choices it forces group members to make. Even when two alternatives seem equal, members must choose one. Having to make difficult choices often leads people to see advantages (or disadvantages) they may not have noticed before. The highest total on the paired comparisons chart does not automatically become the group's decision. The data does provide input to the process of deciding. In working toward consensus, the group can focus discussion on the two or three top options. Because the number of comparisons increases rapidly as options increase, it's best to use paired comparisons when the group is evaluating six or fewer options. 48

49 Paired Comparisons Worksheet Forced Choice: 1vs2 1vs3 1vs4 1vs5 2vs3 2vs4 2vs5 3vs4 3vs5 4vs5 TOTAL

50 FORCE-FIELD ANALYSIS Developed by the organizational researcher Kurt Lewin, force-field analysis identifies those forces that both help and hinder you from closing the gap between where you are now and where you want to be. Draw a line down the center of a flip chart page. On the left side write a statement of the problem describing what currently exists. On the right side of the sheet, state the situation as you want it to be, the desired state. Identify and list the helping forces (“boosters”) to the left of the center line below the statement of the problem. List the hindering forces (“barriers”) to the right of the center line. It’s sometimes helpful to assess the relative strengths of both helping and hindering forces. Some groups use a scale (e.g., 5 = very strong, 4 = strong, 3 = medium, 2 = low, 1 = weak) to evaluate the relative impact of the forces. Once the analysis is complete, your group can use this information to generate potential solutions. Explore: How to increase the number or strength of the helping forces. How to decrease the number or strength of the hindering forces. 50

51 Force Field Analysis Make a list of things that are helping you achieve your goal. Make a list of things that are hindering the achievement of your goal. p. 155 Issue: ______________________________________________ Current State: Desired State: 51

52 Criteria Rating Process Criteria rating forms help individuals and groups decide the best option or options among a group of options. In problem solving groups, they are often used in problem and solutions selection. The criteria rating form can be used anytime there are criteria that will be used to inform the decision making process. It is often used by interview teams when selecting a candidate for any position or when selecting new materials/textbooks. 1. The criteria are selected by the group and a rating scale is defined. In most cases a scale of 1 to 5 is used with 5 being the most desirable. 2. Weights are assigned to each criteria depending on its importance relative to the other criteria. 3. Each potential solution is also given a rating for each criterion, and the rating is multiplied by the weight of the criterion. 4. The weighted ratings are totaled. In this case, a 5 on the scale was most desirable so the solution with the highest total is judged the best option. 52

53 Criteria Rating Solutions: Remember that this is only a tool to collect data so be sure to discuss the final outcome before making the final decision, especially if the ratings are close. There are a number of general criteria that can be considered when judging solutions. ControlIs the group in a position to implement the solution? EffectivenessTo what extend does the solution solve the problem? (How likely is it to achieve the desired state?) Customer Satisfaction Will the solution result in increased satisfaction of parents, community members, staff, students, Central Office or others? Time How long will it take to implement the solution? (Some solutions may take less time than others.) Cost of Quality To what extent will the solution reduce the cost of non- conformance? Cost Are the financial resources available to support the initiative Acceptability Will those responsible for implementing the solution accept the solution? 53

54 Criteria Rating Form 54 CRITERA/O PTIONS WEIGHT TOTALS

55 Fishbone Format A diagrammatic tool to help a group analyze the causes and effects of a certain problem. HOW TO USE A FISHBONE A fishbone is a diagrammatic tool to help a group analyze the causes and effects of a certain problem. Cause and effect charts are called fishbones because of their shape. The are sometimes called Ishikawa diagrams after their inventor, Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a Japanese quality control statistician. The cause and effect technique gives a group a systematic way of looking at the causes or solutions. The problem can be diagrammed from the perspective of the “as is” state, the problem that you want to correct or the “desired state,” what conditions you want to exist when you have solved the problem. Cause and effect diagrams are most useful when the process is clearly described and the problem has been clearly defined. When the problem is clearly stated, the factors contributing to the problem or the possible solutions will be much easier to generate. Remember that fishbones only identify possible causes. When everyone agrees on the possible causes, data need to be collected to provide evidence of the actual causes. When used for planning purposes, the cause and effect diagram focuses attention on a desired result. The main arrow points to what you want to happen, the bones, represent the steps/ideas needed to achieve the result. 55

56 TeacherSchoolState/District Parent/Guardian/HomeStudents Demographics FISHBONE 56

57 Fishbone Analysis pp

58 Setting SMART Goals S S pecific – Know exactly what needs to be done M M easurable – How will you know whether it is done? vAnswers the questions “who” will do “what” “as measured by” and “by when?” A A ttainable/achievable – Can it really be done? R R ealistic – Fit the responsibility and nature of the group T T ime-bound – Know when it needs to be completed p

59 Before Reading Strategy Predicting: Four Corner Placemat 1.Read the title and make some predications about the content. 2. Scan the text and make a few more predictions 3. Read the first and last paragraphs. Any new predictions? 4. Finalize your prediction. What is this text all about? AVID Critical Reading: Deep reading Strategies for Expository Texts Teacher Guide San Diego

60 Three Levels of Text Preparation: The ideal group is six to 10 people. Divide larger groups and select a facilitator for each table group, along with a room facilitator to keep time and move the group along. Designate a recorder to chart ideas. Have participants read, view, or listen to the text, taking notes. Purpose: To construct meaning collaboratively, and to clarify and expand thinking about a text, from written document to videotape to podcast, using increasingly specific descriptions. Time: As little as 20 minutes depending on the size of the group or extended for as long as there is time. (It should be extended if the text is long and complex or if there are more than 10 people in a group.) Materials: Text, such as Professional Learning in the Learning Profession: A Status Report on Teacher Development in the U.S. and Abroad, available at Source: Munger, L. & von Frank, V. (2010). Change, lead, succeed: Building capacity with school leadership teams. Oxford, OH: NSDC. Available at 60

61 Three Levels of Text Directions 1.Sentences (about 10 minutes) Each member of the group shares a sentence from the text or from his/her notes about something that struck that person as particularly significant. Others listen and perhaps take notes. There is no discussion. 2.Phrases (about 10 minutes) Each person shares a phrase from the text or from notes written about the text on something that struck that person as significant. Others listen and perhaps take notes. There is no discussion. 3.Words (about 10 minutes) Each person shares a word from the text or from notes written about the text on something that struck that person as significant. Others listen and perhaps take notes. There is no discussion. 4.Discussion (about 10 minutes) Group members discuss what they heard and learned about the text being studied. The group discusses which words emerged and new insights about the document. 5.Debriefing (about 5 minutes) The group debriefs the process. 61

62 Text to Self What does this article remind me of in my life? Text to Text What does this remind me of in other articles I have read? Text to the world What does this remind me of in the world? How is it similar or different to my real world experiences? During Reading: Making Connections

63 Text to Self Text to Text Text to the world During Reading: Making Connections

64 Evidence that supports Evidence that opposes Decision Reasons Question or statement After Reading: BOTH SIDES NOW

65 Action Planning

66

67 TASKTALENTTIMELINE 67

68 Action Planning Analyze the issues Define goals and consider possibilities Identify objectives Identify obstacles Develop strategies List action steps and timelines Implement the action plan Monitor and assess the implementation 68 p. 152

69 Action Committee Process The action committee process is a tool to help… 1. Engage team members in a discussion of what is important. 2. Define what information might drive the decision making of the group. 3. Ensure that the group is clear about the purpose of the team’s work. First, the team will outline the task and define the problem. Team members need to be identified. The team will then identify the assumption or values that might guide the group’s work. They then will identify the requirements or constraints that might also affect the group. Teams may also list the resources that they need to make available and the outcomes that are expected as a result of the group’s work. ACTION COMMITTEE PROCESS TASK/PURPOSE: PROBLEM STATEMENT: DECISION MAKING AUTHORITY: TEAM LEADER(S)/TEAM MEMBERS: ASSUMPTIONS/VALUES: REQUIREMENTS/CONSTRAINTS: DATA/RESOURCES NEEDED: EXPECTED OUTCOMES/PRODUCTS: DATES/DEADLINES: 69

70 3 3 important things I’ve learned ideas/thoughts I would like to share with others action I will take immediately is Reflection

71 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bliss, E. (1986). Getting things done. New York: Bantam Books. Block, P. (1991). Flawless consulting. San Diego: University Associates. Bradford, L. (1976). Making meetings work: A guide for leaders and group members. San Diego: Pfieffer Associates. Champion. R. (1993). Tools for change workshops. Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council. Covey, S. (1990). Principle centered leadership. New York: Simon and Schuster. Covey, S. (1989). Seven habits of highly effective people. New York: Simon and Schuster. DeBono, E. (1992). Serious creativity. New York: Harper Business. Delehant, Ann M. (2006) Making meetings work. Corwin Press and NSDC. Doyle, M. and Straus, D. (1982). How to make meetings work. New York: Jove. Fisher, R. and Ury, W. (1983). Getting to yes. New York: Bantam Books. Forbes-Greene, S. (1983). The encyclopedia of icebreakers: Structured activities that warm-up, motivate, challenge, acquaint, and energize. San Diego: Pfeiffer & Company. Goodman, P. S. (1986). Designing effective workgroups. San Francisco: Josey-Bass, Inc. Hess, K., Editor. (1987). Creating the high performance team. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Hirsh, S., Delehant, A. and Sparks, S. (1994). Keys to successful meetings. Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council. (New Edition due in 2003.) Hirsh, S. and Murphy, M. ( 1991). School improvement planning manual. Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council. Isgar, T. (1995). The ten minute team: 10 steps to building high performing teams, 2nd ed. Boulder, CO. Seluera Press. Johnson, D. W. and Johnson, R. T. (1987). Joining together: Group theory and group skills, 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs. Kayser, T. (1990) Mining group gold. El Segunda, CA: Serif Publishing: Xerox Corporation. Kayser, T. (1993) Team power. El Segunda, CA: Serif Publishing: A Subsidiary of Xerox Corporation. Milchalko, M. (1991) Thinkertoys. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. Miles, M. B. (1981) Learning to work in groups (2nd edition). New York: Teachers’ College: Alfred A. Knopf. Scearce, C. 100 ways to build teams. Palatine, IL: IRI/Skylight Press. Schindler-Rainman, E. and Lippitt, R. (1988). Taking your meetings out of the doldrums. San Diego: University Associates. Stokes, S. (1981) School-based staffed support teams. Bloomington, IN: National Inservice Network, Indiana University. Ury, W. (1993) Getting past no. New York: Bantam Books. VonOech, R. (1990). A whack on the side of the head. New York: Warner Books. Waterman, R. H. The Renewal Factor. New York: Bantam Books. Weisbord, M. R. (1987). Productive workplaces: Organizing and managing for dignity, meaning and community. San Francisco: Josey-Bass. 71


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