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Fruits Chapter 16. Objectives List the five factors that affect a fruit’s flavor and texture Explain the buying and storing of fruits Discuss and identify.

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Presentation on theme: "Fruits Chapter 16. Objectives List the five factors that affect a fruit’s flavor and texture Explain the buying and storing of fruits Discuss and identify."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fruits Chapter 16

2 Objectives List the five factors that affect a fruit’s flavor and texture Explain the buying and storing of fruits Discuss and identify berries, melons, grapes, citrus, stone fruits, pome fruits and tropical and exotic fruits, and provide examples of different varieties

3 Global Sourcing Fruits produced in U.S. come from: –Indigenous stock –Imports from European settlers Fruits may be categorized by climatic growing region –Temperate, subtropical, and tropical

4 Buying and Storing Factors that can affect flavor and texture –Genetics –Environment –Farming practices –Harvest maturity –Post-harvest handling

5 Berries Small, thin-skinned fruits with sweet-tart flesh –Some are made of clusters of tiny sacs –Others have seed-speckled skin Tartness varies between varieties –Blueberries and strawberries are sweetest –Gooseberries, cranberries, currants are tart

6 Buying and Storing Select vividly colored berries that are uniform in size –Avoid any signs of mold Berries should not be washed until just before use Frozen berries are widely available Store delicate berries two to three days

7 16.3 Cranberries 16.4a Red Raspberries 16.2 Blueberries16.1 Blackberries 16.4b Golden raspberries16.5 Strawberries 16.3 and 16.4b courtesy of Robert Garlough; all others © Randy Van Dam 2008

8 Melons Widely available –Grown in many parts of the world –Grow on long vines on the ground –Related to cucumber, pumpkin, and squash Skin thickness varies Seeds in the middle, with wide band of flesh surrounding seeds

9 Buying and Storing Hundreds of melon varieties Peak season: May to September Avoid melons with hard or unevenly colored stalk end End opposite the stalk should have a delicate aroma if fruit is ripe –Should also sound hollow when tapped

10 16.6 Bitter melon16.8 Casaba16.9 Crenshaw 16.13 Pepino16.12 Kiwano © Randy Van Dam 2008

11 Grapes Uses of grapes –Seeds are used to make oil –Vines used as fuel to flavor grilled foods –Leaves are used for wrapping savory filling –The fermented juices become wine Classified by color, seeded or seedless, and table or wine

12 Buying and Storing Look for firm grapes that are plump and fragrant Picked ripe –They do not ripen once removed from vine Avoid shriveled or discolored fruit Store unwashed in perforated plastic bags or bins for up to 10 days

13 16.17 Champagne16.18 Common black seedless 16.19 Common green seedless 16.21a Green globe 16.20 Common red seedless 16.22b Red muscato © Randy Van Dam 2008

14 Citrus Fruits Notable for their fragrance and juice content –High in citric acid Many citrus fruits picked while partially green –Color changes while in transit to markets

15 Global Sourcing Citrus trees need sunny, humid environments with sufficient moisture Fruit begins to ripen in fall or early winter Major commercial growing areas –Southern China, the Mediterranean, Australia, South Africa, parts of South America, California, Florida, and Texas

16 Buying and Storing Citrus does not continue to ripen after it has been picked Choose fruit that is firm and heavy for its size Store under refrigeration or in a cool, dark place –Can be maintained unbagged six-eight weeks

17 16.24 Kumquat16.25a Lisbon lemon16.26 Persian lime 16.29 Blood orange16.28 Limequat16.34 Clementine © Randy Van Dam 2008

18 Stone Fruits Stone fruits have pits in the center Category includes peaches, nectarines, plums, apricots, cherries, and newer hybrids Nonhybrids are native to China California is largest grower of stone fruits

19 Buying and Storing Summer is stone fruit season Often picked and shipped before fully ripe to keep fruit from bruising Plums ripen after picking and may be refrigerated without losing flavor Choose heavy, unblemished fruit with a deep color

20 16.39 Apricots16.40 Bing cherries16.41 Nectarines 16.44a Assorted pluots 16.43 Black and red plums 16.44b Plumcot © Randy Van Dam 2008

21 Pome Fruits Pome fruits are tree fruits that include: –Apples –Pears –Quince Named for their pome shape

22 Apples Important food in cooler climates Can be stored for months Many varieties of apples –Different types are bred for eating, cooking, or cider –Cider apples too tart for eating

23 16.49 Golden delicious 16.53 MacIntosh16.50 Granny Smith 16.46 Empire16.45 Braeburn 16.47 Fuji © Randy Van Dam 2008

24 Pears Pears are picked mature but not fully ripe –Will ripen at room temperature –Need to refrigerate once they ripen Choose unblemished fruit without bruises Hundreds of varieties

25 16.61 Comice16.64 Taylor’s gold16.63 Starkrimson (red) 16.58 Asian16.57 D’Anjou16.60 Bosc © Randy Van Dam 2008

26 Quince Has yellowish skin and yellowish-white flesh –Looks and tastes like an apple-pear cross, but drier and more tart than either Choose fruit that is large, firm and brightly-colored

27 Tropical and Exotic Fruits Native to tropical and subtropical climates Can be eating fresh without cooking Once referred to as exotics because of limited availability –Now more commonplace due to improved systems for cultivating, harvesting, and transporting

28 Buying and Storing Many varieties continue to soften or ripen after harvest Most should be kept at room temperature until ripe and then later refrigerated

29 16.71 Star fruit16.72 Cherimoya 16.69 Plantain banana16.67 Baby banana16.70 Red banana © Randy Van Dam 2008

30 16.81a Kent mango16.82b Caribbean red papaya 16.78a Green kiwi16.75c Black mission figs 16.79 Lychee © Randy Van Dam 2008 16.83 Passionfruit

31 Summary A wide variety of fruits exists –Grown in different climates and world regions Classifications of fruits –Citrus, pome fruits, berries, melons, grapes, stone fruits, and tropical and exotic fruits

32 Summary (cont’d.) Most fruits do not ripen after harvesting, though some do Choose unblemished fruit with no sign of mold Most fruits may be refrigerated once ripe

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