2FungiEukaryotic organisms that contain nuclei and mitochondria, depend on other organism for nutrition (heterotrophs) and are non motile.Many shapes and sizes. Grow rapidly. Most like warm , moist environments.
10Structures of FungiA. Hyphae (hy fee) - thread like filaments that develop from fungal spores. Basic structural unit.B. Mycelium (my see lee um) - network of filaments formed from the hyphae.
11Structures of FungiC. Chitin - complex carbohydrate that forms the cell walls. Gives the cells both strength and flexibility.D. Septum - divide the hyphae into individual cells , sections, that contain one or more nuclei. Are porous which allows materials to pass quickly from one part of the fungus to another.
12Structures of Fungi E. Sporangium - spuh ran jee uhm a sac or case in which spores are produced.Ex: the tiny black spots you see in bread mold’s mycelium are a type of sporangium.
13Fungi are made of filamentous tubes called hyphae. In many species, perforated walls,or septa, divide the hyphae into cells containing one or two nuclei.Protoplasm flows through the opening in the septato provide the cells with nutrients, which are storedin the hyphal walls as glycogen. Hyphae elongate from the tip.The entire mass of hyphae is collectively called the mycelium.
163 Methods fungi obtain food 1. Saprophytes - are decomposers and feed on waste or dead organic material.1
173 Methods fungi obtain food 2. Mutualists - live in a symbiotic relationship with another organism.1
183 Methods fungi obtain food 3. Parasites - absorb nutrients from the living cells of their hosts.May produce a special type of hyphae (haustoria) - which allows the fungi to penetrate and grow into host cells where they directly absorb the host cell’s nutrients.1
19Reproduction of FungiSexually and asexually, yeast reproduce by budding, can grow from a single mycelium and most reproduce by forming spores. Most can reproduce spores by either mitosis or meiosis.1
21BuddingForm of asexual reproduction in which mitosis occurs and a new individual pinches off from the parent, matures and eventually separates from parent.1
22Bread yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or baker’s yeast, a type of fungi, reproduces by a process called budding. Bread yeast causes bread to rise by releasing carbon dioxide, which gets trapped in the dough. Here, microscopic yeast (left) have a macroscopic effect (right) on bread dough1
23Fungus classified according to reproductive structures. 1
241. ZygomycotaInclude many important decomposers. One of the most common zygomycetes is black bread mold, often found on bread, fruit, and other food products.Structures:Rhizoids - hyphae that anchor.Stolons - Hyphae that connect rhizoids.1
25The fungus looks like a fuzzy growth with tiny black dots at the tips of the fuzz. 1
272. Ascomycotes:This group includes yeasts and lichens. Largest division, sac fungi that are found in cheeses and in yeast infections.1
283. Basidiomycotes Club shaped hypae, thus common name club fungi. Ex: mushrooms, corn smut, puffballs and stinkhorns.1
29The corn smut is a parasitic fungus that attacks the ears, stalks, and tassels of corn. Large, unsightly mycelial, or fungal, masses develop that eventually produce large quantities of black spores. Occasionally smut galls, or swellings, are produced, which are used as food in some areas of Central and South America.1
324. DeuteromycotesNo sexual stage.Ex: ringworm,athletes foot1
33PenicillinAn important antibiotic derived from the mold Penicillum notatum, pictured here. Penicillin is effective against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria. It acts by killing bacteria directly or by inhibiting their growth.1
34LichenA symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism such as algae.A fungus meets an algaeRock lichen1