Presentation on theme: "Fungus. Fungi Eukaryotic organisms that contain nuclei and mitochondria, depend on other organism for nutrition (heterotrophs) and are non motile. Many."— Presentation transcript:
Fungi Eukaryotic organisms that contain nuclei and mitochondria, depend on other organism for nutrition (heterotrophs) and are non motile. Many shapes and sizes. Grow rapidly. Most like warm, moist environments.
An example of Fungi You know
Good fungi Used in many processes such as bread making, (yeasts). People also eat them (mushrooms).
Bad fungi Cause disease in humans and other organisms. Spoil foods, and poisonous mushrooms. Ex: Ringworm, Athlete’s Foot, Toenail fungus.
Toenail Fungus A Nail fungal infection can cause the nail to become thick or ragged and appear yellow, green, brown or black in color. An infected nail may even separate from the nail bed.
Fungi Life Cycle
Structures of Fungi A. Hyphae (hy fee) - thread like filaments that develop from fungal spores. Basic structural unit. B. Mycelium (my see lee um) - network of filaments formed from the hyphae.
Structures of Fungi C. Chitin - complex carbohydrate that forms the cell walls. Gives the cells both strength and flexibility. D. Septum - divide the hyphae into individual cells, sections, that contain one or more nuclei. Are porous which allows materials to pass quickly from one part of the fungus to another.
Structures of Fungi E. Sporangium - spuh ran jee uhm a sac or case in which spores are produced. Ex: the tiny black spots you see in bread mold’s mycelium are a type of sporangium.
Fungi are made of filamentous tubes called hyphae. In many species, perforated walls, or septa, divide the hyphae into cells containing one or two nuclei. Protoplasm flows through the opening in the septa to provide the cells with nutrients, which are stored in the hyphal walls as glycogen. Hyphae elongate from the tip. The entire mass of hyphae is collectively called the mycelium.
Mycologist Scientist who study fungi.
Structure of Mushroom
3 Methods fungi obtain food 1. Saprophytes - are decomposers and feed on waste or dead organic material.
2. Mutualists - live in a symbiotic relationship with another organism. 3 Methods fungi obtain food
3. Parasites - absorb nutrients from the living cells of their hosts. May produce a special type of hyphae (haustoria) - which allows the fungi to penetrate and grow into host cells where they directly absorb the host cell’s nutrients. 3 Methods fungi obtain food
Reproduction of Fungi Sexually and asexually, yeast reproduce by budding, can grow from a single mycelium and most reproduce by forming spores. Most can reproduce spores by either mitosis or meiosis.
Budding Form of asexual reproduction in which mitosis occurs and a new individual pinches off from the parent, matures and eventually separates from parent.
Bread yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or baker’s yeast, a type of fungi, reproduces by a process called budding. Bread yeast causes bread to rise by releasing carbon dioxide, which gets trapped in the dough. Here, microscopic yeast (left) have a macroscopic effect (right) on bread dough
Fungus classified according to reproductive structures.
1. Zygomycota Include many important decomposers. One of the most common zygomycetes is black bread mold, often found on bread, fruit, and other food products. Structures: Rhizoids - hyphae that anchor. Stolons - Hyphae that connect rhizoids.
The fungus looks like a fuzzy growth with tiny black dots at the tips of the fuzz.
2. Ascomycotes: This group includes yeasts and lichens. Largest division, sac fungi that are found in cheeses and in yeast infections.
3. Basidiomycotes Club shaped hypae, thus common name club fungi. Ex: mushrooms, corn smut, puffballs and stinkhorns.
The corn smut is a parasitic fungus that attacks the ears, stalks, and tassels of corn. Large, unsightly mycelial, or fungal, masses develop that eventually produce large quantities of black spores. Occasionally smut galls, or swellings, are produced, which are used as food in some areas of Central and South America.
Puffball Stinkhorn Mushrooms
4. Deuteromycotes No sexual stage. Ex: ringworm, athletes foot
Penicillin An important antibiotic derived from the mold Penicillum notatum, pictured here. Penicillin is effective against a wide range of disease- causing bacteria. It acts by killing bacteria directly or by inhibiting their growth.
Lichen A symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism such as algae. A fungus meets an algae Rock lichen
Mushrooms are examples of ___? Basidiomycotes
Lichen is a symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism such as algae
___________________ are used to classify fungus. Reproductive structures
Corn smut is a ____________________ fungus that attacks the ears, stalks and tassels of corn. parasitic
Name the 3 ways fungus obtain food. Saprophytes, Mutualists, Parasites