Presentation on theme: "Fungi. Fungi: Although originally classified as plants because they share some characteristics, fungi have several characteristics that make them different:"— Presentation transcript:
Fungi: Although originally classified as plants because they share some characteristics, fungi have several characteristics that make them different: Fungi are eukaryotes (have nuclei) that have cell walls. All fungi are heterotrophs. Fungi lack chlorophyll so they are not photosynthetic. Fungi are major decomposers in every ecosystem.
Cell Structure: Fungi can be unicellular as well as multicellular. Cells are surrounded by cell walls. Fungi are composed of filaments called hyphae. Hyphae are long branching structures of fungus and are the main mode of growth. The movement of cytoplasm within the hyphae structure provides a way to transport materials throughout the hyphae.
Nutrition: To obtain food: 1.Fungi can release chemicals that digest whatever they are growing on and then the fungi absorb the food that is being digested 2.Some fungi catch and eat tiny animals. 3.Some feed on dead or dying organisms, breaking them down. 4.Some are Parasites. Whish means: they survive by living on or in a host organism, thus harming it. 5.Some are symbiotic. Which means: they are in a relationship that helps their host.
Reproduction: Fungi reproduce through the use of spores. Spores: asexual form of reproduction Are very light and can be carried by the wind. If they land in the right conditions they can develop hyphae. Spores develop a special structure called a fruiting body.
Reproduction: When growing conditions become unfavorable, reproduction occurs sexually. The hyphae of two individuals meet and grow together exchanging genetic material. The resulting fungus then contains DNA from each of the two parents.
Forms of Fungi: There are Three main types of fungi: 1.Mushrooms 2.Yeast 3.Molds
1.Mushrooms Mushrooms are shaped like an umbrella and have 5 main parts. Many mushrooms are eaten for food. Many are poisonous too. Parts: 1.Stalk- is the stem like structure. 2.Ring- decorates the stalk looks like a short skirt 3.Cap- top of stalk protects the pores 4.Spores- used for reproduction found under cap 5.Hyphae- thread like tubes
Cap Ring Stalk Spores Hyphae
2.Yeasts Yeasts are single celled unicellular Used in bread because it is a great environment, warm, moist, full of food. As yeast grows it produces CO2, which form the tiny bubbles in the dough. Also used in the production of beer and wine because yeast aid alcohol production through fermentation. Fermentation the process yeasts use to gain energy from food when there is no oxygen present.
3.Molds They can be fuzzy, shapeless, fairly flat fungi that grow on the surface of an object. Most famous mold substance: penicillin Penicillin was the first set of drugs affective against many serious diseases. Who was the scientist that discovered penicillin? Sir Alexander Fleming
Fungi and Other Organisms 1. Many diseases of crop and garden plants are caused by Fungi. 2. Some fungi infect plants and produce toxins. 3. Fungi cause a number of diseases in animals and humans. Some are simply annoying while others are even deadly Examples: Athlete’s foot. Athlete’s foot. Farmer’s Lung Farmer’s Lung Cave Disease/Spelunker’s Lung- fatal if untreated Cave Disease/Spelunker’s Lung- fatal if untreated Ring worm Ring worm
Mycorrhiza: Fungus- root associations Known as: Mycorrhizae “helpful fungi” Can increase their host’s ability to gather nutrients by ten times. Help protect host against; DroughtCold Acid rain Other harmful fungi
Lichen: Lichen- is made up of a fungus and an algae that live together. They are produced through symbiosis between fungus and an algae. First species to colonize a new area