24DecomposersOrganisms that get energy by breaking down the remains of dead organismsEx. Bacteria, FungiKnown as “nature’s recyclers”
25What are the 2 main decomposers? Bacteria !Fungi !
26This chain of energy transferring from one species to another can continue several more times, but it eventually ends. It ends with the dead animals that are broken down and used as food or nutrition by bacteria and fungi. As these organisms, referred to as decomposers, feed from the dead animals, they break down the complex organic compounds into simple nutrients. Decomposers play a very important role in this world because they take care of breaking down (cleaning) many dead material. There are more than 100,000 different types of decomposer organisms! These simpler nutrients are returned to the soil and can be used again by the plants. The energy transformation chain starts all over again.
36Wolves Canus lupis Used to be common throughout the country They are predators that prey on large animals such as elk, deer, moose, buffalo, bisonConsidered at the top of the Energy Pyramid in their ecosystemAlmost wiped out as the wilderness was settledResults of their disappearance to the ecosystem?
37Complete change of the food web: Cervus americanusElk populations increased…Overgrazing (by elk)Grasses became wiped outPopulations of animals dependant on grasses were wiped out (hares, prairie dogs, skunks, chipmunks, and other small mammals)Wipe-out of animals like foxes that eat the small mammals
38In 1995Wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park:
39How’s a habitat different from a niche? (where it lives)Niche-(its role within the ecosystem)
55Two cannibals are eating a clown Two cannibals are eating a clown. One says to the other: "Does this taste funny to you?"
56CompetitionWhen 2 or more individuals or populations try to use the same limited resource such as:FoodWaterShelterSpaceSunlightCan occur within a population as well as between populations of different species
69Hummingbirds and ornithophilous flowers Hummingbirds and ornithophilous flowers have evolved to form a mutualistic relationship. It is prevalent in the bird’s biology as well as in the flower’s. Hummingbird flowers have nectar chemistry associated with the bird’s diet. Their color and morphology also coincide with the bird’s vision and morphology. The blooming times of these ornithophilous flowers have also been found to coincide with hummingbirds' breeding seasons.
70Garter snake and Rough-skinned newt Coevolution can occur between predator and prey species as in the case of the Rough-skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa) and the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). In this case, the newts produce a potent nerve toxin that concentrates in their skin. Garter snakes have evolved resistance to this toxin through a set of genetic mutations, and prey upon the newts. The relationship between these animals has resulted in an evolutionary arms race that has driven toxin levels in the newt to extreme levels.
71Acacia ant and Swollen thorn acacia tree The ant provides protection for the tree against preying insects and other plants competing for sunlight, and the tree provides nourishment and shelter for the ant and the ants' larvae.