4Section 1: Everything is Connected All living things are connected in a web of life.Ecology is the study of the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment.
5Two Parts to an Environment: Biotic – all of the organisms that live together and interact with one another in an environmentAbiotic – the part of the environment that consists of nonliving factors
6The 5 Levels of Organization of the Environment The organism – one single individual living in an environment
7A Population – A group of similar organisms in the same species that live together
8A Community – all of the populations of species that live and interact in an area
9An Ecosystem – made up of a community of organisms and the abiotic environment of the community
10The Biosphere – the part of the Earth where life exists
11Find examples of each level of organization in this Salt marsh environment
12Living Things Need Energy Section 2Living Things Need Energy
13BellringerThis is a flowering plant called Indian Pipe. It has no chlorophyll or chloroplasts.Can this plant still be a producer?If not, where does it get the energy to survive?
14All living things need energy to survive. Organisms can be divided into three groups based on how they get their energy:
15Producers – organisms that use sunlight directly to make food using a process called photosynthesis Most are plants but also includes algae and some bacteriaExamples: Grasses, algae, trees
16Consumers – Organisms that eat other organisms There are several kinds of consumers:
171) Herbivore – only eats plants 1) Herbivore – only eats plants Examples: grasshoppers, prairie dogs, bison
182) Carnivore – only eats animals 2) Carnivore – only eats animals Examples: coyotes, hawks, badgers, owls
193) Omnivores – eat both plants and animals Examples: grasshopper mouse, humansScavengers are omnivores that eat dead plants and animals.Examples: turkey vulture
20Decomposers – organisms that get energy by breaking down dead organisms Examples: bacteria and fungiRemove stored energy from dead organismsThey produce simple materials such as water and carbon dioxide which can be used by other living thingsDecomposers are important because they are nature’s recyclers!
21Food Chains and Food Webs A food chain is a diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another
22A food web is a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem
23`An arrow goes from one animal to the next, showing where energy is going. The arrows point toward who is receiving the energy, or who is doing the eating.Example above: Energy is moving from the grass, to the mouse, to the owl. Or the grass is eaten by the mouse, and the mouse is eaten by the owl.
24An Energy Pyramid is a triangular diagram that shows an ecosystem’s loss of energy, which results as energy passes through the ecosystem’s food chain.An energy pyramid has a large base and a small topLess energy is available at higher levels because only energy stored in the tissues of an organism can be transferred to the next level.
27Wolves and the Energy Pyramid One species can be very important to the flow of energy in an environmentExample is Gray WolvesWolves are at the “top of the food chain” which means they are consumers that control a lot of other populations because they prey on large animalsWhen the gray wolf population declined, other species, such as elk, were no longer controlledThis led to overgrazingThis led to lack of food for the elk and all other species dependent on the grass for food.Soon almost all of the populations in the area were affected by the loss of the gray wolvesIn 1995 Gray Wolves were reintroduced in an attempt to restore the natural energy flow, bringing populations back into balance.
28Balance in EcosystemsAs the wolf population returns, they will reduce the number of elk, which will allow more plants to grow, so the numbers in populations of animals that eat the plants will increase.
30BellringerMake a list of predators that are also prey
31Interactions with the Environment Most living things produce more offspring than will survive.Example: Frogs lay hundreds of eggs. Why don’t ponds and such become overrun with frogs?An organism, such as the frog, will interact with abiotic and biotic factors that can control population size.
32Limiting FactorsPopulations cannot grow without stopping because the environment contains a limited about of food, water, living space, and other resourcesLimiting factors – resource that is so scarce that it limits population size
33Carrying CapacityCarrying capacity – the largest population that an environment can supportIf a population becomes larger than its carrying capacity, limiting factors cause individuals to leave or die
34Interactions Between Organisms Four Main Ways that Species and Individuals affect each other are:
35Competition – when two or more individuals or populations try to use the same resource such as food, water, shelter, space or sunlight.Occurs between individuals within a populationExample: elks competing for food in the winterAlso happens between populationsExample: different types of trees competing for sunlight
36Predators and Prey The organism that is eaten is the prey The organisms that eats the prey is called the predatorExample: When a bird eats a worm, the bird is the predator and the worm is the prey
37Predator Adaptations – any characteristic that makes a predator better at catching prey
38Prey Adaptations – any characteristic that keeps prey from being eaten
40Defensive Chemicals: skunk or beetle smells, the acid of bees, ants, wasps, anddeadly toxins on the skin of some animals like a poison arrow frog
41Warning coloration – A physical advertisement that predators should look for another meal; predators will avoid any animal that has the colors and patterns they associate with pain, illness, or unpleasant experiences.The most common warning colors are bright shades of red, yellow, orange, black, and whiteLocust Borer (beetle)Yellow Jacket
42Symbiosis – a close, long-term association between two or more species Individuals in a symbiotic relationship can benefit from, be unaffected by, or be harmed by the relationship
43There are 3 groups of Symbiotic Relationships: Mutualism – symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefitExample: Bacteria living in your intestinesClown Fish and Sea Anemone
44Commensalism – A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected Example: sharks and remoras
45Parasitism – A symbiotic association in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed The organism that benefits is the parasiteThe organism that is harmed is the hostThe parasite gets nourishment while the host is weakenedSometimes a host diesExample: Mosquito and human
46Coevolution – When a long-term change takes place in two species because of their close interactions with one anotherExample: the ant and the acacia treeTakes place between any organisms that live close together, but changes happen over a very long period of time
47Coevolution and Flowers A pollinator is an organism that carries pollen from one flower to anotherFlowers have changed over millions of years to attract pollinatorsBecause flowers and their pollinators have interacted so closely over millions of years, there are many examples of coevolution between them.