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FITNESS Unit #4 Muscles & Flexibility Review from Chapters 13-15.

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Presentation on theme: "FITNESS Unit #4 Muscles & Flexibility Review from Chapters 13-15."— Presentation transcript:

1 FITNESS Unit #4 Muscles & Flexibility Review from Chapters 13-15

2 Muscular Fitness Muscular Endurance: the ability of a muscle group to continue muscle movement over a length of timeMuscular Endurance: the ability of a muscle group to continue muscle movement over a length of time Muscular Strength: the amount of force that can be exerted by a single contraction of the muscleMuscular Strength: the amount of force that can be exerted by a single contraction of the muscle

3 Strength and Endurance Benefits in improved appearance of obtaining muscular strength and endurance:Benefits in improved appearance of obtaining muscular strength and endurance: develop better posturedevelop better posture look firmer and trimmerlook firmer and trimmer feel betterfeel better

4 Muscular Achievements Achievement of a good level of muscular fitness will:Achievement of a good level of muscular fitness will: –reduce risk of muscle injury –increase capacity to perform daily tasks and activity by reducing fatigue –reduce bone and muscle loss as you age

5 Health related problems that can be avoided by muscular strength and endurance: –low back pain –abnormal movement due to muscular imbalance –poor posture due to muscular weakness –inability to function effectively on a daily basis –resistance to fatigue –muscular injuries

6 Muscle Basics Muscle: bands of fibers which enable us to moveMuscle: bands of fibers which enable us to move Cartilage: firm, elastic connective tissueCartilage: firm, elastic connective tissue Ligaments: a strong band of connecting tissue that holds bone to boneLigaments: a strong band of connecting tissue that holds bone to bone Tendons: tissue that attaches muscle to boneTendons: tissue that attaches muscle to bone Testosterone: a hormone which is partially responsible for muscle developmentTestosterone: a hormone which is partially responsible for muscle development

7 Muscle Fiber Fast-twitch muscle fiber: a muscle fiber which has a low capacity to use oxygen and the ability to contract fast. The muscles are used for short and intense bursts of actionFast-twitch muscle fiber: a muscle fiber which has a low capacity to use oxygen and the ability to contract fast. The muscles are used for short and intense bursts of action Slow-twitch muscle fiber: a type of muscle fiber having a high capacity to use oxygen, but slow contractile ability. The fibers are used in endurance activities.Slow-twitch muscle fiber: a type of muscle fiber having a high capacity to use oxygen, but slow contractile ability. The fibers are used in endurance activities. Intermediate fast-twitch muscle fibers: a type of muscle fiber used in activities of high intensity and moderate durationIntermediate fast-twitch muscle fibers: a type of muscle fiber used in activities of high intensity and moderate duration

8 Muscle Growth Hypertrophy: the increase in muscle fiber size as a result of strength trainingHypertrophy: the increase in muscle fiber size as a result of strength training Atrophy: when a muscle becomes smaller because of non-useAtrophy: when a muscle becomes smaller because of non-use

9 Types of Muscle Contractions Concentric contractions: a muscle contraction in which one end of the muscle remains stationary while the other end pulls and turns the bone about the joint. Also known as a shortening contraction.Concentric contractions: a muscle contraction in which one end of the muscle remains stationary while the other end pulls and turns the bone about the joint. Also known as a shortening contraction. Eccentric contractions: a muscle contraction which involves a gradual release of the contraction; often called a lengthening contractionEccentric contractions: a muscle contraction which involves a gradual release of the contraction; often called a lengthening contraction Static contractions: when the muscle remains in partial or complete contraction without changing its lengthStatic contractions: when the muscle remains in partial or complete contraction without changing its length

10 Effects of Exercise on the Muscular System Changes that take place as you exercise a muscle:Changes that take place as you exercise a muscle: the size of the muscle temporarily increases as the blood flow to it increasesthe size of the muscle temporarily increases as the blood flow to it increases the body temperature rises, due to the increased activity in the muscle tissuethe body temperature rises, due to the increased activity in the muscle tissue the increased temperature causes the muscles to become more flexible, able to contract and relax more easily and contract at a faster rate.the increased temperature causes the muscles to become more flexible, able to contract and relax more easily and contract at a faster rate.

11 Muscular Changes Changes that take place during muscular endurance activities:Changes that take place during muscular endurance activities: the number of red blood cells increasesthe number of red blood cells increases additional capillaries developadditional capillaries develop

12 Weight Training Set: in weight training, a group of successive repetitions without restSet: in weight training, a group of successive repetitions without rest Spotter: someone who assists the weightlifterSpotter: someone who assists the weightlifter Recovery time: rest between workoutsRecovery time: rest between workouts

13 FIT for Muscular Endurance –for Strength: 8-12 reps at 80% of maximum8-12 reps at 80% of maximum –for Endurance: reps for 3 sets at 30-50% of maximum12-20 reps for 3 sets at 30-50% of maximum

14 Safety precautions for weight lifting –Warm up properly before beginning the training programs –As you are learning new exercises when starting a weight training program, use low weights and high repetitions. –Properly secure barbell plates to prevent slipping. –Keep hands dry by using weight lifting gloves or carbonate of magnesia.

15 –It is important to breathe rhythmically as you exercise to avoid increasing internal chest pressure, which can cause you to faint or damage blood vessels. –When lifting a weight from the floor, keep the weight close to your body. –Unless spotters are present, do not perform the bench press or any other lift where you could be “pinned” if you lose control. –For stability keep back straight and feet shoulder-width apart.

16 –Execute each movement under control. –Moving through the joint’s full range of motion will increase flexibility and strengthen connective tissue. –Begin each workout by using the largest muscle groups, moving to the smallest. –Don’t train if you are ill or injured. –Use proper techniques on all lifts.

17 Lifts Negative lifts are called:Negative lifts are called: –Eccentric contractions – negative work can help the lifter work a muscle that is weakened by fatigue or injury.negative work can help the lifter work a muscle that is weakened by fatigue or injury. Positive lifts are called:Positive lifts are called: –Concentric contractions

18 Types of Exercises Isometric contraction: a static muscle contraction against an immovable resistance. The muscle length remains constant while muscle tension increases [wall push]Isometric contraction: a static muscle contraction against an immovable resistance. The muscle length remains constant while muscle tension increases [wall push] Isotonic contraction: a muscle contraction involving shortening and lengthening of the muscle and movement at a joint [free weights]Isotonic contraction: a muscle contraction involving shortening and lengthening of the muscle and movement at a joint [free weights] Isokinetic training: training in which the length of the muscle changes while the contraction is performed at a constant speed. The machine provides maximum resistance throughout the entire range of motion.Isokinetic training: training in which the length of the muscle changes while the contraction is performed at a constant speed. The machine provides maximum resistance throughout the entire range of motion.

19 Flexibility Flexibility: the ability of a joint and muscle group to move through a maximum range of motionFlexibility: the ability of a joint and muscle group to move through a maximum range of motion Hyperflexibility: slack, overstretched ligaments caused by improper exercises or injuries and result in too much motion in a jointHyperflexibility: slack, overstretched ligaments caused by improper exercises or injuries and result in too much motion in a joint Range of Motion: [full] whenever a body joint moves to its full limit without undue stressRange of Motion: [full] whenever a body joint moves to its full limit without undue stress Stretching: extending the musclesStretching: extending the muscles Stretch reflex: a painful muscle spasm which prevents the muscle from overstretchingStretch reflex: a painful muscle spasm which prevents the muscle from overstretching

20 Bone Structure Hinge joint: a joint which permits only limited movementHinge joint: a joint which permits only limited movement Ball and socket joint: a joint Ball and socket joint: a joint in which the rounded head of one in which the rounded head of one bone fits into the cup-like cavity of bone fits into the cup-like cavity of another bone and permits another bone and permits movement in any directions movement in any directions

21 Muscles and Tendons Extension: the lengthening movement of muscles around a jointExtension: the lengthening movement of muscles around a joint Flexion: the bending movement of muscles around a jointFlexion: the bending movement of muscles around a joint Muscle imbalance: occurs when one muscle group is worked much more than the opposing muscle group thus becoming much strongerMuscle imbalance: occurs when one muscle group is worked much more than the opposing muscle group thus becoming much stronger

22 Flexibility Techniques Static stretching: the slow and gradual movement of muscle and joint through a range of motion. The stretch position must be reached and held for several seconds.Static stretching: the slow and gradual movement of muscle and joint through a range of motion. The stretch position must be reached and held for several seconds. Ballistic stretching: when the muscle is stretched by a bouncing or jerky movementBallistic stretching: when the muscle is stretched by a bouncing or jerky movement

23 Flexibility Techniques Dynamic stretching: a stretch in which the muscle is slowly and continuously lengthened for secondsDynamic stretching: a stretch in which the muscle is slowly and continuously lengthened for seconds Contract and reflex stretching: contracting a muscle before it is stretched. The person stretching performs an isometric contraction, while a partner provides resistance.Contract and reflex stretching: contracting a muscle before it is stretched. The person stretching performs an isometric contraction, while a partner provides resistance.

24 Benefits of Flexibility –wellness –prevention of low back pain –healthy joints –injury prevention

25 Factors that limit flexibility –bone structure –muscles and tendons –ligaments –fat –gender –injuries –low back pain

26 Safety precautions for stretching –perform stretching exercises within your own physical limitations –progression should be gradual –avoid ballistic stretching exercises which can cause damage to muscles, ligaments and tendons –partner stretching can be dangerous if your partner forces you body to stretch too far


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