3 DevianceModes of action which do not conform to the norms or values held by most of the members of a group or society.What is regarded as 'deviant' is as widely variable as the norms and values that distinguish different cultures and subcultures from one another.Many forms of behaviour which are highly esteemed in one context, or by one group, are regarded negatively by others.
4 Devianceshared sense of order (predictability): the meanings we attach to people, things, and actions."Otherness" (differentness) challenges our assumptions, our taken-for-granted sense of normalcy and naturalnessDeviance is problematic, yet essential and intrinsic to any conception of Social Order.
5 Deviance & Social Control Deviance is a label (PROCESS) used to maintain the power, control, and position of a dominant group.Deviance is a negotiated order.The definition of deviance defines the threat and allows for containment and control of the threatdefinition of deviance preserves, protects, and defines group interests and in doing so maintains a sense of normalcy.Deviance is a product of Social Interaction.
6 Deviance and Conformity Social constructionsidealized conduct is most clearly seen in marginalized peopledeviance forces them into "discredited" or "discreditable" groups, based on the nature of their stigmadeviance & the existence of a stigma
7 Stigma"mark of infamy or disgrace; sign of moral blemish; stain or reproach caused by dishonorable conduct; reproachful characterization" (Webster, 1913)Social stigmasocial disapproval of personal characteristics or beliefs that are against cultural normssocial stigma often leads to marginalization
8 Normality/abnormality Multi-dimensional conceptsRepresents a range of possible perceptionsOf what is normal and not normalWhether it is controlled or not by the norms of societyTimes & places people can behave in an abnormal wayMost cultures disapprove of forms of public behavior that are obviously not being controlled
10 Zones of social behavior Not static, fluid categories, spectrum of possibilitiesChange with time & circumstanceNormal in one group – abnormal in anotherControlled normality (A)Uncontrolled normality (D)Controlled abnormality (B)Uncontrolled abnormality (C)
11 Zones of social behavior A, D, B – it is assumed that the individual is at least aware of what the social norms areWhether they conform or notSubstance useTraversing the categories of “bad” and “mad”Criminal & IntoxicationTemporary madness
12 Which Group?Modes of action which do not conform to the norms or values held by most of the members of a group or societyDeviance, stigma, zones of social behaviorReminder: What is regarded as 'deviant' is as widely variable as the norms and values that distinguish different cultures and subcultures from one another.
13 “sub-cultures”In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with distinct sets of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part.The subculture may be distinctive because of the age of its members, or by their race, ethnicity, class and/or genderthe qualities that determine a subculture as distinct may be aesthetic, religious, occupational, political, sexual or a combination of these factors
14 Sub-cultures Versus “community” Sub-cultures have come to designate social groups which are perceived to deviate from the normative ideals of some communitySmall-scale association of people united by a common interestSub = “beneath” or “within”Variance from a larger normal, average, dominant collectivityConsciousness of otherness or difference
15 Sub-cultures & difference Difference defined in contrast to existing normsAs opposing category – embraces those norms in the process of differentiationSocial & cultural reproductionMimesis & alterityHegemony -- the dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force
16 Hegemony & Cultural Control Cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group.The cultural control that hegemony asserts affects commonplace patterns of thoughtHegemony controls the way new ideas are rejected or become naturalized in a process that subtly alters notions of common sense in a given society.
17 Cultural hegemonyCultural hegemony is a concept coined by Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci.a diverse culture can be ruled or dominated by one group or class, that everyday practices and shared beliefs provide the foundation for complex systems of domination.What’s bad, mad, normal, deviant, etc.
18 Urban AnthropologyThe urban – spatially dense, heterogeneous populationHeterogeneity & “sub-cultures”Anthropology & ethnography applied to the study of urban phenomenathe causes, processes and consequences of urban migration and urbanizationcross-cultural similarities and variations in urban ways of lifehow people negotiate urban life as a particular sociocultural worldrural-urban influences, neighborhoods, ethnicities, subcultures, social networks and stratification to understand how social relations are constructed and how cultural knowledge is distributed in cities
19 Conceptual Approaches ecology modelscommunity, family, and network analysesstudies of power/knowledge of planning and architecturesupralocal/local linkage analysespolitical economic, representational, and discursive models of the city
20 City(s) The ethnic city - mosaic of enclaves The divided city – hidden barriers of race & classThe gendered city – a male preserveThe contested city -- attention to ‘spatialising’ of cultureThe de-industrialized cityThe global cityThe informational cityThe modernist & post-modernist cityThe sacred cityThe fortress city
21 Urbanity“The processes of segregation establish moral distances which make the city a mosaic little worlds which touch but do not interpenetrate.This make it possible for individuals to pass quickly and easily from one moral milieu to another, and encourages the fascinating but dangerous experiment of living at the same time in several different contiguous, but otherwise widely separated worlds” (Park 1952:47)
22 dominant research trends in urban anthropology Post-structural studies of race, class and gender in urban contextStructure & agencypolitical economic studies of transnational culturestudies of the symbolic and social production of urban space and planning
23 Space & PlacePlace and space -- central constructs within geography, archaeology, architecture and landscape architecture.emphasized spatial thinking, visualization, and the use of non-linear and conceptual modes of representation (maping, drawing, and model building).other academic disciplines rarely studied space and place.architectural design, settlement layout, or the visual character of a region as the “setting”spatial patterns, the meanings that groups and individuals attach to landscape and built environment, and spatial modes of problem solving usually not considered
24 The anthropology of space & place Built environmentsplace is a space to which meaning has been inscribedspace as an abstract, universal, non-cultural phenomenonwe only have place: experienced, practiced, localBuilt world and geographies as systems of signs and symbolsa language of signification
25 two different approaches to space/place one that emphasizes the experiential, situational, sensual, contingent aspects of spacethe other emphasizes the brute force of power, the structural, and the continuity of structuring principles of built environments
26 Re-Thinking GEOGRAPHIES OF IDENTITY Spatial-cultural habits of mind, body,immutable link between cultures, peoples, and identities & specific placesnotion of culture based on the inseparability of identity from placeDeterritorializationDiasporic public spheres -- part of the cultural dynamic of urban life in most countriesmigration and mass mediation
27 GEOGRAPHIES OF IDENTITY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE/DOMESTIC SPHERES/PLACES opposition between domestic (reproduction), private, & public (production) provides the basis of a framework to identify and explore placeDomestic/private: public sphere clearly drawn in societies where division of labor encompasses more than age & sex differentiationmobility not just through geographic space but social space (associations)
28 Home and StreetThe term street children refers to children for whom the street more than their family has become their real home.It includes children who might not necessarily be homeless or without families, but who live in situations where there is no protection, supervision, or direction from responsible adults.
29 StigmaThe public view of street children in many countries is overwhelmingly negative.The public has often supported efforts to get these children off the street, even though they may result in police round ups, or even murder.There is an alarming tendency by some law enforcement personnel and civilians, business proprietors and their private security firms, to view street children as almost sub-human.
30 Children in the U.S.The United States is one of only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).Somalia—a country without an internationally-recognized government—is the other.
31 Abuse as Deviance deviance destroys the credibility of the normative Conformity (cultural & social) and the family as normative behavior & interactionsDeviant behavior & interactions & expectationsDamages the expectations of cultural conformityFamily as site of emotional life & learningDamages the character of the individuals
32 Abusive Family Life to Street Life The emphasis on idealized, normative identity and conduct limits the ability of the discredited individual to achieve full acceptance by the population that he or she is forced to assimilate into.For the discreditable individual who attempts to "pass" and employ "disidentifiers" to establish him/herself as "normal" (44), feelings of ambivalence and alienation emerge as a result of limited social intercourse.
33 Street Life as Normative idealized, normative identity and conduct of street life provides another social milieu for the individual to achieve full acceptance by the population that he or she chooses to assimilate into.Can "pass" and employ "identifiers" to establish him/herself as "normal" (44)Loss of feelings of ambivalence and alienation emerge as a result of changing context of social intercourse.