Presentation on theme: "Social mobility Social control Social cohesion (political)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Quick revision – what are the 5 functions of education according to Functionalists? (S) Social mobilitySocial controlSocial cohesion (political)Secondary socializationServing the needs of the economy/selection
2 Quick revision – what are the 5 stages of education? SecondaryFurtherPrimaryGCSE/BTECAS/A2HigherSATSDegreePre-School/Early years
4 Crime & Deviance Revision Distinguish between crime and devianceDescribe the ways in which individuals are encouraged to conform to social rules both formal and informalDescribe trends in distribution of crime e.g. gender, ethnicity, sex, social class etcOutline different sociological explanations of criminal and deviant behaviour, such as sub-cultural theories, labelling theory and relative deprivationAwareness of social issues such as racism and teenage crimeAnalyse the usefulness of official crime figures, and self-report and victim studiesDescribe the effect of criminal and deviant behaviour on victims, communities and societyApplesWhat do sociologists mean by deviance? (4 marks)PearsWhat do sociologists mean by crime? (4 marks)
5 Crime: is usually associated with behaviour that breaks the formal, written laws of a given society. Deviance: is behaviour which does not conform to the dominant norms of a specific society.Deviant behaviour is defined by the norms of society, which means that different cultures, times etc may define deviance differently.Can you think of an example of behaviour that…a) Was classed as deviant in history that would now not be classed as deviant?b) Was accepted in history but would now be classed as deviant?c) Would be deviant in the UK but is accepted in other cultures?TIF: what sources would tell us this?
6 Quick revision – What 5 factors affect the distribution of crime? enderGgeEAthnicityLocalitySociological ExplanationsInadequate socializationRelative deprivationLabelling theorySub-cultural theory / peer pressureOpportunity structuresMarxist explanationslassC
7 Variations on this question… Discuss how far sociologists would agree that crime and deviance among ________(1) is a result of ____________(2)
8 Eye on the exam…Identify two types of crime commonly experienced in urban communities (2 marks)Explain what sociologists mean by labelling. (4 marks)3) Describe one way in which some sociologists believe that labelling can lead to deviant behaviour and explain why this might be a problem for certain groups within society (5 marks)4) Describe one police action that may lead to some members of minority ethnic groups being stereotyped as criminal and explain why this stereotyping occurs. (5 marks)5) Describe one reason why people in poverty are more likely to be victims of crime than the more wealthy and explain why this situation persists. (5 marks)
9 Homework – complete at least two of these 12 mark questions. Discuss how far sociologists would agree that……what is seen as deviance arises from labelling in society.…that most antisocial behaviour is committed by young men.…that criminal behaviour is caused by poverty and social deprivation.…that ethnic groups appear to commit more crimes than others because they are stereotyped.…that most deviant and criminal behaviour in young people results from peer group pressure.…that women are less likely to commit crime than men.…that in Britain today working class criminals are more likely to get convicted than middle class and upper class ‘white collar’ criminals
10 Quick revision – What are the 5 agents of social control? FamiliesReligionLegal systemPeer groupsSchool/ workWhich are formal and which are informal?How do they ensure conformity?
11 Eye on the exam…Identify two ways in which people are encouraged to conform to formal social rules (2 marks)Identify two types of formal social control that societies use to enforce order (2 marks)Explain what sociologists mean by the term ‘agencies of social control.’ (4 marks)Explain what sociologists mean by white-collar crime (4 marks)Explain what sociologists mean by conformity when studying deviance. (4 marks)
12 Evidence – What percentage of crime is racially aggravated? 2002/03 British Crime Survey4% mixed race3% Asian2% black2% Chinese/other originLess than 1% whiteJannson (2006)20% of black vandalism victims thought the crime was racially motivatedLess than 1% of white vandalism victims though the crime was racially motivated11% of police reported harassment was racially or religious motivated in 2007/08Walklate (2007) argues that statistics are likely to underestimate the extent to which routine harassment is part of the everyday lives of people from minority ethnic groups.British Crime Survey1999/2000 – 10,758 racially or religiously aggravated harassment2006/07 – 28,4852007/08 – 26,495
13 Citizenship compulsory in England since 2002 How far would Sociologists agree that the government is doing enough to tackle racially motivated offences?Crime and Disorder Act 1998Created new offences forRacially aggravated assaultRacially aggravated criminal damageRacially aggravated harassmentIf racially motivated offence = harsher sentenceJannson (2006)20% of black vandalism victims thought the crime was racially motivatedLess than 1% of white vandalism victims though the crime was racially motivatedCitizenship compulsory in England since 2002Walklate (2007) argues that statistics are likely to underestimate the extent to which routine harassment is part of the everyday lives of people from minority ethnic groups.British Crime Survey1999/2000 – 10,758 racially or religiously aggravated harassment2006/07 – 28,4852007/08 – 26,49511% of police reported harassment was racially or religious motivated in 2007/08
14 Social IssuesDescribe one way in which recent governments have tried to reduce anti-social behaviour and explain how successful this approach has been. (5 marks)2) Describe one way in which governments have attempted to reduce racist behaviour in society and explain how successful this approach has been. (5 marks)
15 How do we get our statistics on crime? Official Statistics(Police statistics gathered by Home Office)Self Report Studies (Defendants admit to minor criminal behaviour in surveys)Victim Surveys(public asked if ever been a victim of crim)
16 Reported crime – crime that is reported to the police Reported crime – crime that is reported to the police. Not all crime is reported.Recorded crime – crime that is recorded by the police. Not all reported crime is recorded.Why is not all reported crime recorded?Why is not all crime reported?The true figure (amount) of crimeOfficial crime statistics(not showing Dark Figure of Crime)Photocopy Nelson Thornes p.99 & Collins pTIF: If you were the Police Commissioner, what would you do to improve the relationship between the true figure of time and the Official Crime Statistics?
17 Quick revision – What is the impact of crime on victims & society? PhysicalEmotionalSocialAnomie?Financial
18 On society? What is the impact of crime? On victims? Culture of fear Damages cohesionMoral panicOn society?What is theimpact ofcrime?Folk devilsScapegoatsPhysicalOn victims?SociallyPsychologicalFinancial
19 Eye on the exam…Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of using self-report studies to collect data about levels of crime in society. (2marks)Describe one way in which the government collects statistics about the level of crime in society and explain why this might not be an accurate picture of the number of crimes committed. (5 marks)Describe one way in which crime and deviant behaviour could have a negative impact on communities and explain why this impact is seen as a problem by some members of the public. (5 marks)4) Discuss how far sociologists would agree that official statistics give an accurate picture of the levels of crime in society. (12 marks)