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Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. 1826: first Hawaiian-U.S. Treaty opens trade - whaling - sugarcane 1842: U.S. formally recognizes Hawaiian government.

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Presentation on theme: "Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. 1826: first Hawaiian-U.S. Treaty opens trade - whaling - sugarcane 1842: U.S. formally recognizes Hawaiian government."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hawaii and the Pacific Islands

2 1826: first Hawaiian-U.S. Treaty opens trade - whaling - sugarcane 1842: U.S. formally recognizes Hawaiian government Provisioning port on journey to China Christian missionaries among first to settle - decimation of kapu & language - public schools - political influence Early influence

3 1840 ’s Autocracy  constitutional monarchy with bicameral legislature, Constitution, Bill of Rights Prime Minister C.P. Judd Great Mahele: right of commoners to purchase land Treaty of 1849: privileges for American citizens, economically important

4 Reciprocity (1875) Article I: lists goods to be imported to the United States duty-free sugar, bananas, hides, castor oil, plants Article II: lists goods preferentially imported to Hawaii from the U.S. meats, metals, cotton… Article IV gives Hawaii exclusivity on special trade status

5 Bayonet Constitution Renewal of Reciprocity Treaty in 1887  U.S. demands access to Pearl Harbor King Kalakaua opposed; led to Bayonet Constitution Revision to the Constitution transferring power to his cabinet Granted American residents in Hawaii right to vote in elections Forced Kalakaua to sign under threat of arms

6 McKinley Tariff 1890 Eliminated import taxes Placed two cent bounty on domestic sugar Ruined Hawaii’s advantage

7 Queen Liliuokalani Nationalist Leader “Hawaii for Hawaiians” Attempted New Constitution

8 Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawai’i Coup led by Lorrin A. Thurston Wilson attempted to protect the Queen Policeman shot on January 17 th 1893 ThurstonWilson

9 Overthrow Cont. Concern for American Residents in Honolulu Companies of uniformed and well armed Marines to take up positions throughout Hawaii Intimidated monarch not to resist Public Law

10 Change in Hawaii 1893 annexation treaty negotiated and sent to Senate by President Benjamin Harrison Withdrawn by Grover Cleveland in March --Sent James H. Blount to Hawaii to investigate Provisional Government of Hawaii under Sanford Dole – Sought annexation – Proclaimed Hawaii a republic in 1894 Grover ClevelandBenjamin Harrison Provisional Government

11 Treaty Attempt March 1897 new annexation treaty negotiated when Republicans under McKinley returned to power – Rejected by sugar producers and couldn’t get Senate majority Signed and submitted to U.S. Senate for ratification June 16, 1897 by McKinley William McKinley

12 Hawaiian Opposition 1897 treaty effort blocked by newly-formed Hawaiian Patriotic League – petitioned the U.S. Congress in opposition of the treaty "Petition Against Annexation" signed by 21,269 native Hawaiian people left 46 Senators in favor, less than the 2/3 majority needed

13 Annexation 1898 Spanish America War 1898 shows strategic necessity of Hawaiian Islands July 12, 1898 McKinley signed Newlands Resolution Passed in Congress, annexing the islands 1898: A formal ceremony took place on the steps of 'Iolani Palace, where the Hawaiian flag was lowered and an American flag was raised.

14 Guam Brutal Spanish control The Treaty of Paris ceded Guam to the United States Naval control benefitted the island territory as the standard of life improved under the control of Captain Leary

15 American Samoa 1850s- The United States, Germany, and Great Britain showed interest in the settling the islands The US got control of Pago Pago ships sunk in Apia Harbor and the Berlin Act was put into effect The eastern half of the islands was ceded to the United States

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17 Midway The Guano Islands Act granted American citizens the right to cease Midway Atoll William H. Seward acquired the Midway Islands in the hope to expand the naval influence of the US

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