Presentation on theme: "Origins of American Imperialism Hawaii. Imperialism The policy of stronger nations extending their economic, political or military control over weaker."— Presentation transcript:
Origins of American Imperialism Hawaii
Imperialism The policy of stronger nations extending their economic, political or military control over weaker territories. Exploiting those weaker nations for raw materials and using them as a market for surplus goods.
Isolationism Strict non-involvement in the affairs of other nations.
Collective Security Working with other countries to influence world affairs.
Internationalism Intervening in other countries’ affairs to promote important national interests and/or to safe gaurd national security.
European Imperialism European nations had been establishing colonies for centuries. By the late 1800s Africa was a prime target of European imperialism –Britain, France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Portugal and Spain competed for raw materials and markets.
Great Britain also had territory in Asia and the Pacific. –“The sun never sets on the British Empire.” –Britain built an empire that included a quarter of the world’s land by 1901.
Asian Imperialism Imperialism also existed in parts of Asia as well. Japan seized land in China. –They hoped to strengthen their industrial power.
Three factors fueled American Imperialism. –Economic competition among industrial nations. –Political and military competition, including the creation of a strong naval force. –A belief in the racial and cultural superiority of people of Anglo-Saxon descent.
A Thirst for New Markets Imperialism had economic roots. American farmers and factories could produce more than the U.S. could consume. Needed markets to sell those surplus items. Needed raw materials.
Military Strength In the book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, Alfred T. Mahan argued that the United States needed a strong navy to protect economic interests. The nation needed strategically placed bases where the fleet could refuel. He said the U.S. needed to establish bases in the Caribbean, build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama and acquire islands in the Pacific.
Anglo-Saxon Superiority Some Americans combined the philosophy of Social Darwinism with a belief in the racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons. Argued the United States had a responsibility to civilize the “inferior” people of the world.
Anti-Imperialism Some objected to imperialism on both moral and practical grounds. Felt that nothing justified the domination of other countries by the U.S. Others felt the cost of maintaining military force large enough to protect overseas interests was too high.
The U.S. Takes Hawaii
Hawaii’s Economy American owned sugar plantations accounted for about 3/4s of Hawaii’s wealth during the mid 1800s By 1900, foreigners outnumbered native Hawaiians about three to one. An 1875 treaty allowed the sale of Hawaiian sugar in the U.S. without a duty.
In 1887 foreign business leaders forced King Kalakaua to change Hawaiian law to grant voting rights to wealthy landowners only. This gave control of the Hawaiian government to American businessmen. Also in 1887, the U.S. forced Hawaii to allow them to open an American naval base in Pearl Harbor.
In 1890, the McKinley Tariff eliminated the duty-free status of Hawaiian sugar. Created an economic crisis in Hawaii. Business leaders in Hawaii called for annexation to the U.S. say they would not have to pay the duty.
The Queen is deposed Lilioukalani became queen in She proposed a new constitution that would remove the property qualifications from voting. Business groups organized a revolution against her. January 1893, the U.S.S. Boston appeared in Honolulu harbor.
American marines moved ashore to supposedly protect American lives and property. The queen was imprisoned and Sanford B. Dole became president.
Republic of Hawaii President Cleveland directed that the queen be restored to power. Dole refused. Unwilling to use force, Cleveland recognized the republic of Hawaii, but refused to consider annexation unless the majority of Hawaiians supported it.
In 1897, William McKinley, who favored annexation, succeeded Cleveland as president. On August 12, 1898, Congress proclaimed Hawaii and American territory. Hawaiians did not have a chance to vote on the issue.
DQ’s 1)Outline the issues that were used to justify late 19 th century American imperialism 2)Identify William H. Seward and list the achievements in the area of American foreign policy during his tenure as Secretary of State. Identify James G. Blaine and list the American achievements in foreign policy during his tenure as Secretary of State
3) List the reasons why Americans had an interest in the annexation of Hawaii. Describe the Cleveland administration’s handling of the annexation issue. 4) Identify Queen Liliuokalani and explain the significance of her role in the Hawaiian annexation issue.
5) Cite examples of US intervention in the political affairs of Chile and Venezuela during the 1890s. Explain how these incidents reflected American ideas about the role of the United States in the Western Hemisphere