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Biocombustíveis 01/12/2004 Suzana Kahn Ribeiro Professora Programa de Engenharia de Trasnportes PET/COPPE/UFRJ.

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Presentation on theme: "Biocombustíveis 01/12/2004 Suzana Kahn Ribeiro Professora Programa de Engenharia de Trasnportes PET/COPPE/UFRJ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biocombustíveis 01/12/2004 Suzana Kahn Ribeiro Professora Programa de Engenharia de Trasnportes PET/COPPE/UFRJ

2 ENERGY AND TRANSPORT - WORLD USE OF OIL PER SECTOR % 58% +16.5% (IEA 2002)BIOFUELS

3 ENERGY AND TRANSPORT – WORLD SHARE OF ENERGY DEMAND IN TRANSPORT (IEA 2002)BIOFUELS

4 ENERGY AND TRANSPORT – ENERGY USE IN TRANSPORT PER REGION (WBCSD, 2004)BIOFUELS

5 PROJECTIONSOF THE EMISSIONS OF CARBON IN THE WORLD PROJECTIONS OF THE EMISSIONS OF CARBON IN THE WORLD % Countries in development 24% USA 25% Asia and Western Europe 13 % Ex-URSS and Oriental Europe 23 billion tons of C (EPA, 2001) % USA 18% Asia and Western Europe 11 % Ex-URSS and Oriental Europe 35 billion tons of C 50% Countries in developmentBIOFUELS

6 POSSIBLE TRANSPORT FUEL PATHWAY (WBCSD, 2004)BIOFUELS

7 Sistema de Propulsão X Combustível (WBCSD, 2004 )

8 BIOFUELS DEFINITION Either in liquid form such as fuel ethanol or biodiesel, or gaseous form such as biogas or hydrogen, biofuels are simply transportation fuels derived from biological (e. g. agricultural) sources: Cereals, grains, sugar crops and other biomass can fairly easily be fermented to produce ethanol; Oil-seed crops (e. g. rapeseed, soybean and sunflower) can be converted into methyl esters - biodiesel; Organic waste material can also be converted into energy forms which can be used as automotive fuel: waste oil (e. g. frying oil) into biodiesel; animal manure and organic household wastes into biogas (e. g. methane); and agricultural and forestry waste products into ethanol.BIOFUELS

9 BIOFUELS LAND CLIMATE LABOR TECHNOLOGY GOVERNMENT SUPPORT ECONOMIC RESOURCES WHAT IS NECESSARY TO PRODUCE BIOFUELS ? INFRASTRUCTUREBIOFUELS

10 ETHANOL 1.Renewable fuel, that has the least contribution to the greenhouse effect; 2.Liquid of low toxicity and good popular acceptance; 3.Dominated technology; 4.Job generation in the field; 5.Use of available infrastructure of liquid fuels production and distribution; 6.Fuel that can be used pure (hydrous) or in mixtures with the gasoline (anhydrous); 7.Fuel for the new propulsion technologies.BIOFUELS

11 % PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL BY TYPE IN BRAZIL 1997 to 2003 Growth of anhydrous ethanol... but with the Flex Fuels cars the consumption of hydrous ethanol is increasing. 97/9898/9999/0000/0101/0202/03 Anhydrous Hydrous Year EthanolBIOFUELS

12 Share of Flex Fuel sales in 2004 Isto é dinheiro 28/ 07/ 2004BIOFUELS

13 FLEX FUEL CARS The recognition of the amount of alcohol and gasoline is made through an oxygen sensor. This information is sent to the unit of command in order to adapt all the functions (injection, ignition, detonation adjustment & control) to the mixture air / fuel for any proportion of alcohol and gasoline.BIOFUELS 13/ 10/ 2004

14 ADVANTAGES OF THE FLEX FUEL CAR  Fuel supply flexibility ( price and availability )  Smaller cost when provisioning with alcohol  Flexibility of provisioning (price and readiness)  Consumption will depend on:  cost difference between gasoline and alcohol  autonomy needBIOFUELS 13/ 10/ 2004

15 SURVEY WITH USERS OF FLEX FUELS BIOFUELS Costumers survey (UNICA, out/02): Image Flexfuel - excellent / flexibility 67% would buy flexfuel 63% would buy with the price up to 10% higher than gasoline car (Volkswagen)

16 MODELS AND MARKET CURRENT PRICES 1 R$ = 2,97 U $ BIOFUELS Assemblers Number of FF Models Comparison of price of popular models (Gasoline/ Flex Fuel) Difference Gasoline CarFlex Fuel Car VW4 Gol 1.0 cityGol 1.6 cityMotorization R$ (U$ 6983) R$ (U$ 8511) R$ (U$ 1527) GM4 Corsa Hatch 1.0 Joy Corsa Hatch 1.0 Joy Flex 1.8 Motorization R$ (U$ 8540) R$ (U$ 9548) R$ (U$ 1008) Fiat1 Palio ELX 1.0 Palio ELX 1.3 Flex Motorization R$ (U$ 8077) (U$ 8511) R$ (U$ 434)

17 PRICE : GASOLINE X ALCOHOL Consumption of Hydrous Ethanol 30% larger => difference is compensated if price is  30% than of the gasoline From 19/09/2004 to 25/09/2004BIOFUELS Price at the filling station (Average) Difference GasolineAlcohol CuritibaR$ 1,995R$ 1,19839,95% Belo HorizonteR$ 1,971R$ 1,32132,98% RecifeR$ 2,143R$ 1,38135,56% Ribeirão PretoR$ 1,997R$ 0,94952,48% São PauloR$ 1,991R$ 1,02848,37% CampinasR$ 2,010R$ 1,00450,05% Rio de JaneiroR$ 2,074R$ 1,30037,32% (ANP, 2004)

18 BRASIL: (UNICA, 2004 )

19 FUELS MARKET TRENDS IN BRAZIL 70% of the sale of the vehicles next 2 years will be of flex; 2006: Tri-fuel (alcohol + gasoline + CNG); Flex fuel cars will have acquired customer confidence; Biodiesel entering market.BIOFUELS

20 The term biodiesel generally refers to an ester made by transesterification, a chemical process that reacts a feedstock oil or fat with methanol or ethanol and a catalyst; The feedstock can be: vegetable oil, such as the derived from oil-seed crops (soy, sunflower, rapeseed, etc.), used frying oil or animal fats. Products of the chemical reaction = biodiesel (a mixture of ethyl esters or fatty acid methyl esters ) + glycerine; Biodiesel has physical-chemical characteristics very similar to the diesel, which facilitates the use of it in Diesel cycle engines. BIODIESELBIOFUELS

21 AGRICULTURA BASES DE DISTRIBUIÇÃO INDÚSTRIA DO ÁLCOOL POSTOS DE SERVIÇOS USO FINAL EXTRATIVISMO RESIDUAIS COLETA EXTRAÇÃO DO ÓLEO Óleo PRODUÇÃO DE BIODIESEL INDÚSTRIA QUÍMICA Alcool Catalizador (KOH) Óleo vegetal Óleo Residual INDÚSTRIA QUÍMICA E FARMACEUTICA Biodiesel Biodiesel (1) Glicerina Biodiesel (1) (1) Pure or mixture Subprodutos sólidos Cadeia de Obtenção do Biodiesel

22 Fonte: Elaboração própria Bigger consumption; transport; motors industry give warranty (VW, Audi, Seat, PSA, Mercedes, MAN); 1800 filling stations. 17 producers or importer companies of biodiesel; used:+ for transport (public or private), for heating oil and also for industrial use; It is not used for individual transport. All the diesel oil has at least 1% of biodiesel; of the 13 refineries of Petroleum in operation, 7 mix 5% of biodiesel to the diesel; all the urban buses use B5 to states; originated of used frying oil and of soy; it is being used in fleets of urban bus, postal services and the government's organs (NASA). B100B5 e B25 (transport) e B100 (heating) B5 e B30B20 (most popular) B2 (farmers) e o B100 (less) BIODIESEL - WORLD BIOFUELS

23 European Community USA World 000 ton YearBIOFUELS 13/ 10/ 2004

24 Producers of Biodiesel USA Germany Malasia Australia Brasil Argentina France Italy European Community BIODIESEL - WORLD ton/ year ton/ year ton/ year ton/ year Commercial Producers ton/ year ton/ year ton/ yearBIOFUELS

25 PANORAMA MUNDIAL Diretiva 2003/30/CE: 1) 2% até 2005 e 5,75% até 2010 de biocombustíveis (em conteúdo energético) na gasolina e óleo diesel para transportes ; 2) Garantia de oferta dos biocombustíveis, por meio de subsídios à produção e facilidade de comercialização (isenção de impostos); 3) É obrigatória a rotulagem para mistura maior que 5% em volume.

26 Urban centers Used frying oil and of residual industries, fatty materials extracted from industrial and municipal sewers North Region Native and african palm trees (dendê)/ Soy/ Babassu/ Peanuts Center West and Center South Regions Soy/Castor bean/ Cotton/Sunflower Southeast Region Soy/ Castor bean / Cotton/ Sunflower Northeast Region Babassu /Soy/ Castor bean /Palm/ Cotton South Region Soy/ Rapeseed/ Cotton/ SunflowerBIOFUELS

27 BIODIESEL IN BRAZIL  Diversity of raw material and production processes enable a better use of regional resources as well as production flexibility  Raw material from both agriculture and extrativism contribute to better income and demographic distribution among the several Brazilian regions  The use of residual raw material reduces environmental load in large cities  Large national ethanol production  Land availabilityBIOFUELS

28 BIOFUELS ADVANTAGES The biofuels many advantages include:  Diversifying and improving access to clean energy sources;  Balancing the use of fossil fuels and thus saving them for other applications and for future use;  Reducing pollution and emissions from conventional energy systems;  Job generation.BIOFUELS

29 BIOFUELS - CONCLUSIONS  A single alternative will not be enough to meet the increasing demand for fuels, and biofuels itself isn’t the ultimate solution.  Biofuels could play a crucial role as a complementary fuel for conventional ones, since it requires vast plantation land.  In a long term scenario one can say that biofuels could help the world meet its demands for fuels until higher technological solution, as hydrogen, comes up.BIOFUELS


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