Presentation on theme: "Environmental Performance of Biofuels for Transportation"— Presentation transcript:
1Environmental Performance of Biofuels for Transportation Michael MartinEnvironmental Technology and Management
2“You can’t solve the problems with the same kind of thinking that created the problems” -Albert Einstein-Something must be doneAnswers must be madeCant compare with Petroleum ProductsRelevant Options Exist….BiofuelsRelevant Option at Present:Alleviation from Biofuels…
3Overview Biofuels for Transport, What they are Different types of biofuelsBrief HistoryRaw MaterialsProductionApplication in VehiclesBenefits and DrawbacksBiofuels DebateSynergies and Symbiosis Options to Improve PerformanceFuture SystemsMy work with Tanzanian Biodiesel
5Biofuels for Transport Vehicle fuels derived from biomass and wastesSolidLiquidGasReplacement of traditional/conventional fuelsTotal substitutionPartial (blending)Dual FuelBiofuels for Transport come in 3 direct forms, SOLID, Liquid and GasThey are used as a means to replace and/or alleviate full use of petoleum products
61st vs. 2nd Generation Biofuels First Generation BiofuelsCommonProduced from allocated feedstocksSecond Generation BiofuelsCreated from ligno-celluloseNot commonMore development neededHUGE POTENTIAL!To make things a bit more Complicated….1st Generation biofuels…these are what people are used toMade from feedstocksCommon in todays infrastructure2nd Generation- Lignocellulose-Huge development potential!!!
7Biofuels for Transport 3 Main Fuels for TransportEthanolBiodieselBiogasSVO, Pure Vegetable OilNow we come to the popular vehicle fuels, afterall we are talking about biofuels for transport-Ethanol (E85)-Biodiesel (RME) Raps Methyl Ester-Biogas (Methane produced from agricultural sources)Finally…we have SVO, straight vegetable oil…PVO…..
8History as a Vehicle Fuel Application in Vehicles EthanolHistory as a Vehicle FuelRaw MaterialsProduction ProcessCellulosic EthanolApplication in VehiclesPros vs. Cons
9History of Ethanol as a Vehicle Fuel Henry FordQuadri-cycleModel TFlex Fuel VehicleCarburetor Adjustment for Ethanol or Gasoline“Build a vehicle affordable to the working family and powered by a fuel that would boost the rural farm economy.” (Henry Ford)Henry Fords vehicle 1st was run on ethanolMichigan has lots of corn, and it was produced from corn….Later, Model designed with a carburetor system to run with ethanol.“You can have a Model T in any color you would like, as long as it is BLACK” (Henry Ford)
10Ethanol Raw Materials Sugar Rich Crops Starch Rich and Cereals Sugar caneSugar beetsStarch Rich and CerealsSorghumSweet PotatoesWheatCorn (Maize)Cellulosic Crops Abundant…
11Ethanol Production Process Grain,Mill the grain, Mix with water and crushCook itFerment, Turn sugars into alcoholDistil, Seperation, Purified….FINALLY, Ethanol must include denatured to make it nonconsumable by people
12Ethanol Production-Ligno-Cellulose Lignin and cellulose in PlantsConvert Cellulose to EthanolLignocellulosic enzymatic fermentationCan produce a wide range of fuels
13Ethanol for Vehicles Examples How it Works Flexfuel Becoming Popular (Ford, Volvo, GM, Audi, etc.)Miljöbilar (Environmental Cars) of StockholmOnly $ ( SEK) for initial chip by manufacturersHow it WorksOn board diagnostics distinguishingControls fuel-air mixtureCan run any blend of E85 and Gasoline (Petrol)My new Project, Ford Fiesta-Miljöbil (Ethanol Conversion)FlexiTune SystemJuly 2008, Converted cars considered MIJLÖBILAR
14Advantages vs. Disadvantages Use in VehiclesOctane BoosterCleaner burningMany flex fuel cars on marketFlex Fuel Conversions are CheapCorrosion Problems (Older Vehicles)Flex Fuel or Conversions NeededMost modern engines designed for gasolineInfrastructureLiquid fuel, easy integrationLocally ProducedRequires new/upgraded pumpsEnvironmentalReduced GHG emissionsCarbon NeutralWater SolubleEnergy balance concernsCompetition with food cropsSustainable?OtherLess ToxicFree Parking PermitsReduces Dependence on Foreign Oil
15Application in Vehicles BiodieselBiodiesel HistoryRaw MaterialsProduction ProcessApplication in VehiclesPros vs. Cons
16Biodiesel History Rudolf Diesel Ran with peanut oil Optimistic about biofuels for future1st Diesel Engine, 1893Alterations because of low petroleum prices“The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and coal-tar products at the present time.” (Rudolf Diesel, 1920)
17Biodiesel Raw Materials Sunflower OilRapeseed (Canola)Waste Cooking OilsAnimal FatsSoybean OilJatrophaCashewsAlgaeEtc....
18Biodiesel Production Production Transesterification of oils and fats Seperate glycerin and methyl estersUses Methanol or Ethanol and catalysts
19Advantages vs. Disadvantages Use in VehiclesCleansing QualitiesBetter LubricityUsed in Any Diesel EngineIncreased service (filters, etc.)10% lower efficiency“Gelling” issuesCheck WarrantyInfrastructureBlended easilyNo special requirementsNot generally available (RME)EnvironmentalReduced GHG emissionsEasily biodegradableSulfur and Aromatics FreeIncreased NOX emissions (certain raw materials)OtherLess ToxicReduces Dependence on Foreign OilBy-products used for biogas and other purposesA bit more expensiveTaxes in Sweden on Diesels
20Application in Vehicles BiogasRaw MaterialsProduction ProcessApplication in VehiclesPros vs. Cons
21Biogas Raw Materials Manure Food Residues Biomass Sewage Landfills GlycerinRubberFatsMats Eklund and his V70 Bi-fuel
22Biogas Production Anaerobic fermentation of organic matter Produces methane and CO2
23Bi-Fuel Vehicle System 2 Tanks (Gasoline <Petrol> and CNG)Choice Between CNG or Biogas and GasolineAutomatic Switch and/or Manual Switch
24Advantages vs. Disadvantages Use in VehiclesBi-fuel Vehicle (Gas or Methane)Clean burning fuelExpensive TanksIncreased WeightInfrastructureCan be combined with current methane distributionNot common infrastructure for vehiclesSpecial pumping neededHard to transportEnvironmentalReduced GHG emissionsMethane emissions capturedNo crops or plantations requiredLess nitrogen fertilizers required if byproducts usedOtherFree Parking PermitsMade from any organic wasteCostly initial investments
29Are biofuels Sustainable? Brazilian Exploitation of LaborDepletion of Rain forests for sugar cane and palm?Is it really carbon neutral?Increased NOx levels (Some biodiesel feedstocks)Exploitation of Developing Countries by Europe and USA
36Synergies in Biofuel Production Biofuels ProductionBiodiesel byproducts for biogas productionGlycerinSeedcakesFruits, ShellsUse of ethanol for transesterification processReplacement of MethanolTrapping of CO2 for photosynthesis of biomass for biofuelsAlgae for biodieselUse of discarded plant components to produce biofuelsMixture of waste products with feedstocks for production of biofuelsManure mixed with other by-products for biogas production
37Symbiosis Options Biofuel Production Systems Utilization of waste heat from incineratorsSeedcakes and malt used as high protein fodderReplace soy importsSharing Transportation, Heating and Water Supplies
39Biodiesel for Tanzania PurposeFeasibility StudyRaw MaterialsActorsPurchasingSmall Scale LOCAL usageAimsIntroduction of SustainabilityAlleviation of petroleum importsLocal EconomyBring electricity and development to Tanzania
40Ageratec AB, Norrköping Small to Large Scale ProductionBatch ProcessingOnline Support SystemsWater Free ProductionMethanol (Ethanol) RecoveryPortable, Affordable Options
41Other CustomersEuropean MarketDeveloping Countries
42Conclusions Tack så mycket! Biofuels are relevant for vehicles today Biofuels do not come without debateSynergies will alleviate energy concerns and improve biofuels performance measuresBalance between crops for biofuels and food must be foundFuture innovations are crucial for successTack så mycket!