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1 Environmental Performance of Biofuels for Transportation Michael Martin Environmental Technology and Management

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Presentation on theme: "1 Environmental Performance of Biofuels for Transportation Michael Martin Environmental Technology and Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Environmental Performance of Biofuels for Transportation Michael Martin Environmental Technology and Management

2 2 “You can’t solve the problems with the same kind of thinking that created the problems” -Albert Einstein- Relevant Option at Present: Alleviation from Biofuels…

3 3 Overview Biofuels for Transport, What they are Different types of biofuels –Brief History –Raw Materials –Production –Application in Vehicles –Benefits and Drawbacks Biofuels Debate Synergies and Symbiosis Options to Improve Performance Future Systems My work with Tanzanian Biodiesel

4 4 What are Biofuels for Transportation?

5 5 Biofuels for Transport Vehicle fuels derived from biomass and wastes Solid Liquid Gas Replacement of traditional/conventional fuels Total substitution Partial (blending) Dual Fuel

6 6 1 st vs. 2 nd Generation Biofuels First Generation Biofuels Common Produced from allocated feedstocks Second Generation Biofuels Created from ligno-cellulose Not common More development needed HUGE POTENTIAL!

7 7 3 Main Fuels for Transport –Ethanol –Biodiesel –Biogas ►SVO, Pure Vegetable Oil Biofuels for Transport

8 8 Ethanol History as a Vehicle Fuel Raw Materials Production Process Cellulosic Ethanol Application in Vehicles Pros vs. Cons

9 9 Henry Ford Quadri-cycle Model T Flex Fuel Vehicle Carburetor Adjustment for Ethanol or Gasoline “Build a vehicle affordable to the working family and powered by a fuel that would boost the rural farm economy.” (Henry Ford) “You can have a Model T in any color you would like, as long as it is BLACK” (Henry Ford) History of Ethanol as a Vehicle Fuel

10 10 Sugar Rich Crops Sugar cane Sugar beets Starch Rich and Cereals Sorghum Sweet Potatoes Wheat Corn (Maize) Ethanol Raw Materials Cellulosic Crops Abundant…

11 11 Ethanol Production Process

12 12 Ethanol Production-Ligno-Cellulose Lignin and cellulose in Plants Convert Cellulose to Ethanol Lignocellulosic enzymatic fermentation Can produce a wide range of fuels

13 13 Ethanol for Vehicles Examples Flexfuel Becoming Popular (Ford, Volvo, GM, Audi, etc.) Miljöbilar (Environmental Cars) of Stockholm Only $ ( SEK) for initial chip by manufacturers How it Works On board diagnostics distinguishing –Controls fuel-air mixture Can run any blend of E85 and Gasoline (Petrol) My new Project, Ford Fiesta-Miljöbil (Ethanol Conversion) FlexiTune System July 2008, Converted cars considered MIJLÖBILAR

14 14 Advantages vs. Disadvantages AdvantagesDisadvantages Use in Vehicles Octane Booster Cleaner burning Many flex fuel cars on market Flex Fuel Conversions are Cheap Corrosion Problems (Older Vehicles) Flex Fuel or Conversions Needed Most modern engines designed for gasoline Infrastructure Liquid fuel, easy integration Locally Produced Requires new/upgraded pumps Environmental Reduced GHG emissions Carbon Neutral Water Soluble Energy balance concerns Competition with food crops Sustainable? Other Less Toxic Free Parking Permits Reduces Dependence on Foreign Oil

15 15 Biodiesel Biodiesel History Raw Materials Production Process Application in Vehicles Pros vs. Cons

16 16 Rudolf Diesel Ran with peanut oil Optimistic about biofuels for future 1 st Diesel Engine, 1893 Alterations because of low petroleum prices “The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and coal-tar products at the present time.” (Rudolf Diesel, 1920) Biodiesel History

17 17 Raw Materials Sunflower Oil Rapeseed (Canola) Waste Cooking Oils Animal Fats Soybean Oil Jatropha Cashews Algae Etc.... Biodiesel Raw Materials

18 18 Biodiesel Production Production Transesterification of oils and fats Seperate glycerin and methyl esters Uses Methanol or Ethanol and catalysts

19 19 Advantages vs. Disadvantages AdvantagesDisadvantages Use in Vehicles Cleansing Qualities Better Lubricity Used in Any Diesel Engine Increased service (filters, etc.) 10% lower efficiency “Gelling” issues Check Warranty Infrastructure Blended easily No special requirements Not generally available (RME) Environmental Reduced GHG emissions Easily biodegradable Sulfur and Aromatics Free Increased NOX emissions (certain raw materials) Other Less Toxic Reduces Dependence on Foreign Oil By-products used for biogas and other purposes A bit more expensive Taxes in Sweden on Diesels

20 20 Biogas Raw Materials Production Process Application in Vehicles Pros vs. Cons

21 21 Raw Materials Manure Food Residues Biomass Sewage Landfills Glycerin Rubber Fats Biogas Mats Eklund and his V70 Bi-fuel

22 22 Biogas Production Anaerobic fermentation of organic matter Produces methane and CO2

23 23 Bi-Fuel Vehicle System 2 Tanks (Gasoline and CNG) Choice Between CNG or Biogas and Gasoline Automatic Switch and/or Manual Switch

24 24 Advantages vs. Disadvantages AdvantagesDisadvantages Use in Vehicles Bi-fuel Vehicle (Gas or Methane) Clean burning fuel Expensive Tanks Increased Weight Infrastructure Can be combined with current methane distribution Not common infrastructure for vehicles Special pumping needed Hard to transport Environmental Reduced GHG emissions Methane emissions captured No crops or plantations required Less nitrogen fertilizers required if byproducts used Other Free Parking Permits Made from any organic waste Costly initial investments

25 25 Straight Vegetable Oil Application in Vehicles

26 26 Car runs on vegetable oil! Must be a diesel Requires special conversion How it works... Vegetable Oil Cleaned Vegetable Oil Heated Injected into pistons Straight Vegetable Oil

27 27

28 28 The Biofuels Debate Scientists Media Politicians

29 29 Brazilian Exploitation of Labor Depletion of Rain forests for sugar cane and palm? Is it really carbon neutral? Increased NO x levels (Some biodiesel feedstocks) Exploitation of Developing Countries by Europe and USA Are biofuels Sustainable?

30 30 Biofuels diverting crops Effects Corn prices rising Soy bean prices rising More crops for biofuels Results Corn product prices increasing –E.g. Mexican Tortillas Animal Feed prices rising Milk prices rising Cereal prices rising

31 31 Supporters

32 32 Contesters

33 33 Pål Börjesson Example Synergies and Symbiosis Measures Biofuel specific crops Use biofuels for production Environmental Performance Improvements

34 34 Synergies and Symbiosis

35 35 Cashew Biodiesel, Tanzania

36 36 Biofuels Production Biodiesel byproducts for biogas production –Glycerin –Seedcakes –Fruits, Shells Use of ethanol for transesterification process –Replacement of Methanol Trapping of CO2 for photosynthesis of biomass for biofuels –Algae for biodiesel Use of discarded plant components to produce biofuels Mixture of waste products with feedstocks for production of biofuels –Manure mixed with other by-products for biogas production Synergies in Biofuel Production

37 37 Biofuel Production Systems Utilization of waste heat from incinerators Seedcakes and malt used as high protein fodder Replace soy imports Sharing Transportation, Heating and Water Supplies Symbiosis Options

38 38 Future Possibilities, Algae

39 39 Biodiesel for Tanzania Purpose Feasibility Study Raw Materials Actors Purchasing Small Scale LOCAL usage Aims Introduction of Sustainability Alleviation of petroleum imports Local Economy Bring electricity and development to Tanzania

40 40 Ageratec AB, Norrköping Small to Large Scale Production Batch Processing Online Support Systems Water Free Production Methanol (Ethanol) Recovery Portable, Affordable Options

41 41 Other Customers European Market Developing Countries

42 42 Conclusions Biofuels are relevant for vehicles today Biofuels do not come without debate Synergies will alleviate energy concerns and improve biofuels performance measures Balance between crops for biofuels and food must be found Future innovations are crucial for success Tack så mycket!

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