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Environmental Performance of Biofuels for Transportation

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Performance of Biofuels for Transportation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Performance of Biofuels for Transportation
Michael Martin Environmental Technology and Management

2 “You can’t solve the problems with the same kind of thinking that created the problems”
-Albert Einstein- Something must be done Answers must be made Cant compare with Petroleum Products Relevant Options Exist….Biofuels Relevant Option at Present: Alleviation from Biofuels…

3 Overview Biofuels for Transport, What they are
Different types of biofuels Brief History Raw Materials Production Application in Vehicles Benefits and Drawbacks Biofuels Debate Synergies and Symbiosis Options to Improve Performance Future Systems My work with Tanzanian Biodiesel

4 What are Biofuels for Transportation?

5 Biofuels for Transport
Vehicle fuels derived from biomass and wastes Solid Liquid Gas Replacement of traditional/conventional fuels Total substitution Partial (blending) Dual Fuel Biofuels for Transport come in 3 direct forms, SOLID, Liquid and Gas They are used as a means to replace and/or alleviate full use of petoleum products

6 1st vs. 2nd Generation Biofuels
First Generation Biofuels Common Produced from allocated feedstocks Second Generation Biofuels Created from ligno-cellulose Not common More development needed HUGE POTENTIAL! To make things a bit more Complicated…. 1st Generation biofuels…these are what people are used to Made from feedstocks Common in todays infrastructure 2nd Generation - Lignocellulose -Huge development potential!!!

7 Biofuels for Transport
3 Main Fuels for Transport Ethanol Biodiesel Biogas SVO, Pure Vegetable Oil Now we come to the popular vehicle fuels, afterall we are talking about biofuels for transport -Ethanol (E85) -Biodiesel (RME) Raps Methyl Ester -Biogas (Methane produced from agricultural sources) Finally…we have SVO, straight vegetable oil…PVO…..

8 History as a Vehicle Fuel Application in Vehicles
Ethanol History as a Vehicle Fuel Raw Materials Production Process Cellulosic Ethanol Application in Vehicles Pros vs. Cons

9 History of Ethanol as a Vehicle Fuel
Henry Ford Quadri-cycle Model T Flex Fuel Vehicle Carburetor Adjustment for Ethanol or Gasoline “Build a vehicle affordable to the working family and powered by a fuel that would boost the rural farm economy.” (Henry Ford) Henry Fords vehicle 1st was run on ethanol Michigan has lots of corn, and it was produced from corn…. Later, Model designed with a carburetor system to run with ethanol. “You can have a Model T in any color you would like, as long as it is BLACK” (Henry Ford)

10 Ethanol Raw Materials Sugar Rich Crops Starch Rich and Cereals
Sugar cane Sugar beets Starch Rich and Cereals Sorghum Sweet Potatoes Wheat Corn (Maize) Cellulosic Crops Abundant…

11 Ethanol Production Process
Grain, Mill the grain, Mix with water and crush Cook it Ferment, Turn sugars into alcohol Distil, Seperation, Purified…. FINALLY, Ethanol must include denatured to make it nonconsumable by people

12 Ethanol Production-Ligno-Cellulose
Lignin and cellulose in Plants Convert Cellulose to Ethanol Lignocellulosic enzymatic fermentation Can produce a wide range of fuels

13 Ethanol for Vehicles Examples How it Works
Flexfuel Becoming Popular (Ford, Volvo, GM, Audi, etc.) Miljöbilar (Environmental Cars) of Stockholm Only $ ( SEK) for initial chip by manufacturers How it Works On board diagnostics distinguishing Controls fuel-air mixture Can run any blend of E85 and Gasoline (Petrol) My new Project, Ford Fiesta-Miljöbil (Ethanol Conversion) FlexiTune System July 2008, Converted cars considered MIJLÖBILAR

14 Advantages vs. Disadvantages
Use in Vehicles Octane Booster Cleaner burning Many flex fuel cars on market Flex Fuel Conversions are Cheap Corrosion Problems (Older Vehicles) Flex Fuel or Conversions Needed Most modern engines designed for gasoline Infrastructure Liquid fuel, easy integration Locally Produced Requires new/upgraded pumps Environmental Reduced GHG emissions Carbon Neutral Water Soluble Energy balance concerns Competition with food crops Sustainable? Other Less Toxic Free Parking Permits Reduces Dependence on Foreign Oil

15 Application in Vehicles
Biodiesel Biodiesel History Raw Materials Production Process Application in Vehicles Pros vs. Cons

16 Biodiesel History Rudolf Diesel Ran with peanut oil
Optimistic about biofuels for future 1st Diesel Engine, 1893 Alterations because of low petroleum prices “The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today but such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as petroleum and coal-tar products at the present time.” (Rudolf Diesel, 1920)

17 Biodiesel Raw Materials
Sunflower Oil Rapeseed (Canola) Waste Cooking Oils Animal Fats Soybean Oil Jatropha Cashews Algae Etc....

18 Biodiesel Production Production Transesterification of oils and fats
Seperate glycerin and methyl esters Uses Methanol or Ethanol and catalysts

19 Advantages vs. Disadvantages
Use in Vehicles Cleansing Qualities Better Lubricity Used in Any Diesel Engine Increased service (filters, etc.) 10% lower efficiency “Gelling” issues Check Warranty Infrastructure Blended easily No special requirements Not generally available (RME) Environmental Reduced GHG emissions Easily biodegradable Sulfur and Aromatics Free Increased NOX emissions (certain raw materials) Other Less Toxic Reduces Dependence on Foreign Oil By-products used for biogas and other purposes A bit more expensive Taxes in Sweden on Diesels

20 Application in Vehicles
Biogas Raw Materials Production Process Application in Vehicles Pros vs. Cons

21 Biogas Raw Materials Manure Food Residues Biomass Sewage Landfills
Glycerin Rubber Fats Mats Eklund and his V70 Bi-fuel

22 Biogas Production Anaerobic fermentation of organic matter
Produces methane and CO2

23 Bi-Fuel Vehicle System
2 Tanks (Gasoline <Petrol> and CNG) Choice Between CNG or Biogas and Gasoline Automatic Switch and/or Manual Switch

24 Advantages vs. Disadvantages
Use in Vehicles Bi-fuel Vehicle (Gas or Methane) Clean burning fuel Expensive Tanks Increased Weight Infrastructure Can be combined with current methane distribution Not common infrastructure for vehicles Special pumping needed Hard to transport Environmental Reduced GHG emissions Methane emissions captured No crops or plantations required Less nitrogen fertilizers required if byproducts used Other Free Parking Permits Made from any organic waste Costly initial investments

25 Straight Vegetable Oil Application in Vehicles

26 Straight Vegetable Oil
Car runs on vegetable oil! Must be a diesel Requires special conversion How it works... Vegetable Oil Cleaned Vegetable Oil Heated Injected into pistons


28 The Biofuels Debate Scientists Media Politicians

29 Are biofuels Sustainable?
Brazilian Exploitation of Labor Depletion of Rain forests for sugar cane and palm? Is it really carbon neutral? Increased NOx levels (Some biodiesel feedstocks) Exploitation of Developing Countries by Europe and USA

30 Biofuels diverting crops
Effects Corn prices rising Soy bean prices rising More crops for biofuels Results Corn product prices increasing E.g. Mexican Tortillas Animal Feed prices rising Milk prices rising Cereal prices rising

31 Supporters

32 Contesters

33 Environmental Performance Improvements
Pål Börjesson Example Synergies and Symbiosis Measures Biofuel specific crops Use biofuels for production

34 Synergies and Symbiosis

35 Cashew Biodiesel, Tanzania

36 Synergies in Biofuel Production
Biofuels Production Biodiesel byproducts for biogas production Glycerin Seedcakes Fruits, Shells Use of ethanol for transesterification process Replacement of Methanol Trapping of CO2 for photosynthesis of biomass for biofuels Algae for biodiesel Use of discarded plant components to produce biofuels Mixture of waste products with feedstocks for production of biofuels Manure mixed with other by-products for biogas production

37 Symbiosis Options Biofuel Production Systems
Utilization of waste heat from incinerators Seedcakes and malt used as high protein fodder Replace soy imports Sharing Transportation, Heating and Water Supplies

38 Future Possibilities, Algae

39 Biodiesel for Tanzania
Purpose Feasibility Study Raw Materials Actors Purchasing Small Scale LOCAL usage Aims Introduction of Sustainability Alleviation of petroleum imports Local Economy Bring electricity and development to Tanzania

40 Ageratec AB, Norrköping
Small to Large Scale Production Batch Processing Online Support Systems Water Free Production Methanol (Ethanol) Recovery Portable, Affordable Options

41 Other Customers European Market Developing Countries

42 Conclusions Tack så mycket! Biofuels are relevant for vehicles today
Biofuels do not come without debate Synergies will alleviate energy concerns and improve biofuels performance measures Balance between crops for biofuels and food must be found Future innovations are crucial for success Tack så mycket!

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