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Ruhama… Kathleen Fahy RUHAMA. Ruhama… Introduction to Presentation Introduction to Ruhama Definition of Trafficking Identification of Victims Profile.

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Presentation on theme: "Ruhama… Kathleen Fahy RUHAMA. Ruhama… Introduction to Presentation Introduction to Ruhama Definition of Trafficking Identification of Victims Profile."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ruhama… Kathleen Fahy RUHAMA

2 Ruhama… Introduction to Presentation Introduction to Ruhama Definition of Trafficking Identification of Victims Profile of Women Practice Issues Contact Details

3 Ruhama… Introduction to Ruhama Established 1989 Trustees: Good Shepherd & Our Lady of Charity Sisters

4 Ruhama… Ruhama’s Services Outreach  One to one support (Individuality of Victims)  Advocacy & Referral  Befriending  Support to Access: Accommodation Health Care Legal Services  Support with Repatriation & Integration

5 Ruhama… Ruhama’s Services Development Education (English/Computers) Counselling Awareness Raising/Campaign Work

6 Ruhama… UN Definition of Trafficking 2000 Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, or the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others.

7 Ruhama… Criminal Law (Human Trafficking Bill) 2007 (2.a) Means procures, recruits, transports or harbours the person (2.b) causes a person to enter or leave the State or to travel within the State. (5) A person who trafficks another person for the purpose of sexual exploitation if the trafficker - used force, coerced, abducted, deception, or the abuse of power or took advantage of vulnerability.

8 Ruhama… The difference between Trafficking & Smuggling In Smuggling, the smuggler is paid a fee when the migrant arrives at the destination and the relationship stops there. In Trafficking, the exploitation continues and the main source of revenue for the offender will come from the exploitation that takes place after the person arrives.

9 Ruhama… The difference between Trafficking & Smuggling Smuggling is always transnational in nature, but trafficking may or may not be. The person consents to being smuggled but even if the person who is trafficked originally consented to travel or choice of work, this consent is irrelevant when exploitation takes place.

10 Ruhama… Identification of Victims 1. Constraints on personal freedom: The woman is:  not free to socialise and build social networks.  locked in.  under permanent surveillance

11 Ruhama… Identification of Victims 2. Control of money:  She is not free to dispose of her earnings or has no direct access to it.  The owner of the brothel/exploiter pay all or part of the woman’s income to a third party.

12 Ruhama… Identification of Victims  The woman is in debt to the brothel keeper/club owner because of travel arrangements before she can earn any money or stop ‘working’.  The woman has to earn a clearly defined minimum amount of money per day or week.

13 Ruhama… Identification of Victims 3. Situations at ‘work’  She is under permanent surveillance by the owner.  She cannot make decisions about services offered or refuse any clients.  ‘Works’ long hours with no breaks.

14 Ruhama… Identification of Victims 4. Recruitment  The woman was not informed about her involvement in the sex industry or got misleading information and void contracts about her conditions.

15 Ruhama… Identification of Victims 5. Other indicators  The woman has no passport  The woman is fearful  Non English speaking  Signs of bruising or battering  Recently brought into the country from E. Europe, Asia, Africa or S. America

16 Ruhama… The context of the sex industry in Ireland Nationwide Growing normalisation of prostitution and demand for the purchase of sexual services. Very lucrative The involvement of criminals 90% of women in in-door prostitution are non - Irish nationals. The role of modern technology

17 Ruhama… Profile of Women Ruhama has come in contact with over 150 women who were Presumed Trafficked Age: 17 – 32 years old (majority 18-25) Education: Low level of education Socio economic background: Generally poor Many of the women are mothers Trafficker is; her Boyfriend, a Stranger, an Individual or Organized Criminal Gang

18 Ruhama… Profile of Women Psychological Harm: Trauma – Expressed by Disorientation Anxiety/ /Depression/Flashbacks. Low self-esteem and feelings of shame Disassociation

19 Ruhama… Profile of Women Physical Harm: STI’s/HIV Violence Pregnancy through prostitution Social Isolation due to the harm & stigma attached

20 Ruhama… Practice Issues Access  Hidden nature of sex industry  The control of Traffickers  False loyalty to pimp/trafficker; the complex relationship where she may believe he is protecting her from authorities and she is dependent on him. Cultural sensitivity

21 Ruhama… Practice Issues Entrapment in the Sex Industry The victim’s mistrust of professionals Safety for women and workers

22 Ruhama… Proposed Legislation & Government Strategy Victim protection not included in the current Bill on Trafficking The soon to be published Immigration and Residency Bill is to address the issue of victim protection. Submission to Strategy due 30 th November

23 Ruhama… Contact Ruhama, All Hallows College, Grace Park Rd, Drumcondra, Dublin 9 Tel:


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