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ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION & TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME RELATIONS INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012 Oğuzhan Ömer Demir,

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Presentation on theme: "ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION & TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME RELATIONS INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012 Oğuzhan Ömer Demir,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION & TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME RELATIONS INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012 Oğuzhan Ömer Demir, Ph.D.

2  Migration types and illegal immigration  Illegal immigration and countries  Illegal immigration & organized crime nexus  Migrant smuggling  Human trafficking Outline INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

3  Geography;  International-Domestic  Reason;  Forced-Voluntary  Duration;  Short-term-Long-term  Size;  Individual-Family-Mass  Statute;  Legal-Illegal Migration Types INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

4  Migrating to another country without having legal documentation and permissions  Illegal entry, exit, or stay  Illegal work without any social security  Why? Illegal Immigration INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

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6 Developing Countries World’s Population Trends ( ) Potential Migration Routes Developed Countries 20.1% % % 18% -3.2% -5% -4.7% 33.9% 25.9% Population Increase rate 33% (From 6 billion to 8 billion)

7 22 million people “on the move” any time 2.5 million illegal immigrants live in EU 12 million illegal immigrants lives in USA 1.5 million Syrian asylum-seekers are existed 2.5 million Afghan asylum-seekers live in Pakistan; 2.4 million in İran Migration Trends INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

8 Migration Trends INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

9 Migration Routes INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

10 For target countries; Need for Cheap Labor and Young Population Brain Drain Need for International Support For source countries; Money Transfers; 450 Billion Dollar remittances Returns; Knowledge, Vision, Skills, Contacts- Networks Diaspora; Political Support Advantages of Migration INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

11 For transit and target countries; Living population of undocumented & temporary illegal migrants Political pressure from the West Deportation procedures and damage on state budget Existence of organize crime networks Disadvantages of Illegal Migration Movements INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

12 Nexus between Illegal Migration & Organized Crime INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012 Illegal Immigration Migrant Smuggling Human Trafficking

13  “Modern Day Slavery”  The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person,  For the purpose of “exploitation”.  Exploitation includes, sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs. Human Trafficking INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

14  Girls-women are “illegally” transported to other countries by deceit;  Boys-girls-women are forced to “move” from one place to another  Transported people are forced to “work” in illegal status Human Trafficking INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

15 Human Trafficking INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

16  “Human Cargo” The procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a country of which the person is not a national or a permanent resident Migrant Smuggling INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

17  Migrants are transported via sea or land vehicles  Smugglers provide “forged or falsified travel documents”  Smugglers provide “accommodation” facilities within a country Migrant Smuggling INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

18 Migrant Smuggling INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

19 Migrant Smuggling INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

20 Illegal Entry-Stay Illegal Work Human Rights Abuses Exploitation Force International Transportation Differences & Similarities

21 Conclusion INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012

22 Illegal Immigration & Organized Crime INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR TERRORISM AND TRANSNATIONAL CRIME - UTSAM © 2012  Illegal Immigrants are regarded as “non-criminals”  Illegal Immigrants may turn to be “victims” of trafficking  Illegal Immigration movements usually ends in loss, damage and disappointment  Illegal immigrants are usually captured and/or deported  Smuggers/traffickers are “criminals”  Smugglers/traffickers, though, make huge profits

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