Presentation on theme: "Human Trafficking for Sexual Explotation and Consent João Paulo Orsini Martinelli, LLM, PhD. Mackenzie University, Brazil."— Presentation transcript:
Human Trafficking for Sexual Explotation and Consent João Paulo Orsini Martinelli, LLM, PhD. Mackenzie University, Brazil.
Concept of Human Trafficking International Law: Human Trafficking is a problem of organized crime Main international document: PROTOCOL TO PREVENT, SUPPRESS AND PUNISH TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS, ESPECIALLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, SUPPLEMENTING THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST TRANSNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME
Concept of Human Trafficking "Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs;
Vulnerability: absence of capacity to decide, lack of knowledge of the reality of facts, lack of capacity of resistance, lack of better options in life. Presumption of vulnerability: age (under 18, lack of conscience and mental illness. When the victim is vulnerable, the consent must be ignored.
"The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forth in subparagraph (a) of this article (including vulnerability) shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph (a) have been used; What about and cases in which there is no coertion, fraud or express vulnerability? Its crime of human trafficking even if the victim consents? In Brazil, its crime. It does not matter if theres coercion, fraud or consent. Even a consent from an adult must be considered irrelevant.
Autonomy: the person must have full autonomy to decide on their behavior. In principle, a person's autonomy should be respected by the criminal law. But we have to ask: does the victim have autonomy? Does the consent given coincides with the real will?
Why are there situations in which consent is not worth even when there is no coertion or fraud? 1)Criminal law must prevent future harms 2)Prostitution is a violation of human dignity 3) There are situations in wich the victims dont have other options to survive
1) Criminal law must prevent future harms The victim is not aware of damage that can happen in the future. For example, slavery and violence, difficulties of homecoming. Cases in wich victims believe that his life will be controlled by himself but he becames slave of someone.
2) Prostitution is a violation of human dignity Prostitution is a wrong activity and cant be considered something normal This argument cant be only moral, it requires some harmful content Working as a prostitute is a serious violation of sexual dignity Prostitution is an offensive activity that transforms the person into commodity (market relationship)
3) There are situations in wich the victims dont have other options to survive The social and economical vulnerability makes person opt for prostitution because theres no other option to survive There is a relationship of exploitation between the strongest and weakest Criminal Law have to prevent exploitation when some body has no other option to survive because most of victims belong to fragile groups
Is there legitimacy in State interventions when victims are vulnerable? State should limit the freedom of those who do not have full autonomy When there is no autonomy the state should prevent harm to the person consents State must respect only free and real will of people
Paternalism Paternalism is the interference of a State or an individual on another person, against his will, and defended or motivated by a claim that the person interfered with will be better off or protected from harm (Gerald Dworkin) Hard paternalism x Soft paternalism Direct paternalism x Indirect paternalism
Soft paternalism is valid in democracy and human trafficking is a kind of hard paternalism because the victims are not all vulnerable Human trafficking is a kind of indirect paternalism because the prohibition affects the liberty of prostituted person State should allow prostitution only in case of full autonomy, which is hard to find. In this case, it is better to ban all human trafficking instead of allowing the few cases of full autonomy.