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Republican Rome’s Many Issues. Learning to Manage an Empire Values (Roman Republic) Piety Discipline Frugality Not greedy Righteous wars Never quit As.

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Presentation on theme: "Republican Rome’s Many Issues. Learning to Manage an Empire Values (Roman Republic) Piety Discipline Frugality Not greedy Righteous wars Never quit As."— Presentation transcript:

1 Republican Rome’s Many Issues

2 Learning to Manage an Empire Values (Roman Republic) Piety Discipline Frugality Not greedy Righteous wars Never quit As the empire grew, Romans began to have identity issues Roman values weren’t working as well in the new system

3 Learning to Manage an Empire Structure of the "empire" Still a republican form of government Checks and balances Two parties emerged Optimates opposed change Populares encouraged change The system of elected officials, assemblies and a citizen army were too inefficient to meet the needs of the Rome’s growth Something had to change, but nobody was willing to change it

4 Learning to Manage an Empire Army Citizen soldiers were being kept from home for increasing intervals Men were not home to have babies, plough the harvest or participate in civic life Many small farms were foreclosed on for debt Homeless families left the countryside for Rome Farming Wealthy landowners bought foreclosed farms for cheap prices Created huge plantations (latifundia) Hired homeless families to work for very low wages or to pay off debts Focused on one cash crop (usually wheat) Looking for cheaper sources of labor

5 Learning to Manage an Empire The Solution? Slavery!! Conquests increased the number of slaves Cheap labor Families now out of work move to Rome Slaves ultimately make up 40% of the population Romans always nervous about uprising Countryside is depopulated of Roman citizens

6 Learning to Manage an Empire Rome begins to overcrowd Not enough work for everyone Politicians nervous about the mob Begin supplying free bread to citizens Use games and entertainment to pacify the people By 140 BCE, the need for social reform is overwhelming Populares politicians get it Optimates don’t

7 Political Problems Populares Gracchi Brothers Pushed land reforms Pushed social reforms Pushed economic reforms Encouraged citizenship in the provinces Marius Pushed military reforms Encouraged citizenship in the provinces Attempted to reduce power of the Senate Optimates Sulla Attempted to retain power of the Senate Fought to maintain status quo in citizenship rule Pushed for legal reforms Cicero & Cato Pushed to maintain the mos maorum (status quo)

8 Political Problems Politicians stop trying to solve problems and simply try to make money Many populares politicians are demagogues and try to rule through the mob For the first time, political conflicts became bloody affairs Exile, assassination, and proscription lists became common ways of dealing with political opponents Civil unrest reigned from 140 – 31 BCE Civil war occurred from BCE, BCE, BCE, BCE

9 The Empire continues to churn…. Roman armies keep winning…. The provinces keep yielding incredible profits…. But Rome’s government will have to change….or the whole thing will fall apart…


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