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Unit 3: The Postclassical Era. Symbol found in Constantinople at the Capital.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3: The Postclassical Era. Symbol found in Constantinople at the Capital."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3: The Postclassical Era

2 Symbol found in Constantinople at the Capital

3 Chapter 13-Byzantine Empire P 318 How did Byzantine become important to Rome? P 319 What areas made up the Byzantine Empire? P 319 What were the early challenges for the Byzantines? P 320 Who claimed divine favor? P 320 How did high officials present themselves? P 321 What damaged the infrastructure during Justinian’s early years? P 321 What was done to Roman law? P 322 Who threatened the Byzantine’s from the east?(3) P 323 How did the Byzantines adjust to Islamic threats? P 324 How did peasants get rewarded? P 324 How was the Christian church different in the East and West?

4 P 325 What groups weakened western Rome? P 325 How big was Constantinople compared to other European cities? P 326 How were peasants similar to slaves? P 326 What allowed peasants to gain wealth overtime? P 326 What was problematic with peasants acquiring more wealth? P 327 How was Constantinople important for trade? P 328 What did merchants often combine? P 329 How were men and women different? P 330 How was housing different among the classes? P 331 In time, what became the official language of Rome? P 331 Who was educated? P 331 What did the Arians teach about Jesus?

5 P 331 Who appointed the patriarchs? P 332 What was destroyed because of the view of worshipping icons? P 333 Who lived isolated lives in the name of Christ? P 335 What was made off limits and why? P 335 Who became more and more a threat to Christianity? P 335 What were the differences between the Eastern and Western Church? P 336 How were elite classes created? P 337 Who invaded in the 11 th century? P 338 What took place in 1453? P 339 How did Byzantium influence Bulgaria? P 339 What was developed? P 340 What did Kiev become?

6 It was at this time too that the Georgians, who dwell in the region of Pontus, accepted the word of God and faith in the kingdom to come. The cause of this great benefit was a woman captive who lived among them and led such a faithful, sober, and modest life, spending all of her days and nights in sleepless supplications to God, that the very novelty of it began to be wondered at by the barbarians. Their curiosity led them to ask what she was about. She replied with the truth: that in this manner she simply worshiped Christ as God. This answer made the barbarians wonder only at the novelty of the name, although it is true, as often happens, that her very perseverance made the common women wonder if she were deriving some benefit from such a great devotion. Now it is said that they have the custom, that if a child falls sick, it is taken around by its mother to each of the houses to see if anyone knows of a proven remedy to apply to the illness. And when one of the women has brought her child around to everyone, according to custom, and has found no remedy in any of the houses, she went to the woman captive as well to see if she knew anything. She answered that she knew of no human remedy, but declared that Christ her God, whom she worshiped, could give it the healing despaired of by humans. And after she had put the child on her hair shirt and poured out above it her prayer to the Lord, she gave the infant back to its mother in good health. Word of this got around to many people, and news of the wonderful deed reached the ears of the queen, who was suffering from a bodily illness of the gravest sort and has been reduced to a state of solute despair. She asked for the woman captive to be brought to her. She declined to go, lest she appear to pretend to more than was proper to her sex. Tyrannius Rufinus(345 C.E.) historian from the Eastern Mediterranean, Church History

7 Chapter 14-Islam P 346 What were Muhammad’s parents? P 347 What did many Arabs convert to? P 348 Muhammad’s experience told him what? P 348 What became the holy book? P 348 Who was offended by Muhammad? P 349 Who did he provide relief to? P 349 What was Muhammad referred to? P 351 Who was held in high esteem? P 351 What became the 5 pillars of Islam? P 351 What were Muslims required to combat?

8 Allah chargeth you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the equivalent of the portion of two females, and if there be women more than two, then theirs is two-thirds of the inheritance, and if there be one(only) then the half. And to his parents a sixth of the inheritance if he have a son; and if he have no son and his parents are his heirs, then to his mother appertaineth the third; and if he have brethren, then to his mother appertaineth the sixth, after any legacy he may have bequeathed, or debt. Your parent or your children may children: Ye know not which of them is nearer unto you in usefulness. It is an injunction from Allah. Lo! Allah is Knower, Wise. And unto you belongeth a half of that which your wives leave, if they have no child; but if they have a child then unto you the fourth of that which they leave, after any legacy they may have bequeathed, or debt. And unto them belongeth the fourth of that which ye leave if ye have no child, but if ye have a child then the eighth of that which ye leave, after any legacy ye may have bequeathed, or debt. And if a man or a woman have a distant heir, and he (or she) have a brother or a sister(only on the mother’s side) then to each of them twain the sixth, and if they be more than two, then they shall be sharers in third, after any legacy hath been paid. A commandment from Allah. Allah is Knower, Indulgent. The word of God revealed by Muhammad(610) Koran

9 Our belief concerning the number of the prophets is that there have been one hundred and twenty-four thousand prophets and a like number of plenipotentiaries. Each prophet has a plenipotentiary to whom he gave instructions by the command of God. And concerning them we believe that they brought the truth from God and their word is the word of God, their command God’s command, and obedience to them obedience to God… The leaders of the prophets are five: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. Muhammad is their leader…he confirmed the apostles. It is necessary to believe that God did not create anything more excellent than Muhammad and the Imans….After His Prophet, the proofs of God for the people are the Twelve Imans… We believe that the Proof of Allah in His earth and His viceregent among slaves in this age of ours is this Upholder, the Expected One. Muhammad ibn al- Hassan al-Askri. He it is concerning whose name and descent the Prophet was informed by God, and he it is who WILL FILL THE EARTH WITH JUSTICE AND EQUITY JUST AS IT IS NOW FULL OF OPPRESSION AND WRONG. He it is whom God will make victorious over the whole world until from every place the call to prayer is heard and religion will belong entirely to God… Our belief concerning prophets, apostles, Imans, and angels is that they are infallible…and do not commit any sin, minor or major…he who denies infallibility to them is any infidel. Ibn Babaway al-Saduq, early theologian of the Shia(991 C.E.), Creed Concerning the Imans.

10 P 354 What did Muslims do to those renouncing Islam? P 354 What was taken in the 700s? P 355 What two religious sects developed and why? P 355 Who moved the capital to Damascus? P 356 What were the conquered able to do? P 357 In the 9 th and 10 th Centuries where did the Arabs invade? P 357 Who established standards in the communities?

11 In Baghdad there are about forty thousand Jews, and they dwell in security, prosperity, and honor under the great Caliph, and among them are great sages, the heads of Academies engaged in the study of the Law. In this city there are ten Academies…And at the head of the all is Daniel the son of Hisdai, who is styled “Our Lord the Head of the Captivity of All Israel.” He possesses a book of pedigrees going back as far as David, King of Israel. The Jews call him “Our Lord, Head of the Captivity,” and the Muslims call him the Lord Son of David, he has been invested with authority over all the congregations of Israel at the hands of Emir-al Muminin, the Lord of Islam… In Baghdad there are twenty-eight Jewish Synagogues, situated either in the city itself or in the al-Karkh on the other side of the Tigris; for the river divides the metropolis into two parts. The great synagogue of the Head of Captivity has columns of marble of various colors overlaid with silver and gold, and on these columns are sentences of the Psalms, in golden letters. Benjamin of Tudela, a Jewish traveler(1159 C.E.), Book of Travels

12 P 357 How did Baghdad become important? P 357 What crop became important? P 360 What increased the growth of cities? P 360 What invention was copied from the Chinese? P 361 What did Muslim merchants do? P 361 What became the favored animal? P 361 What bodies of water did Muslims trade on? P 362 What sail allowed for easier travel? P 362 What did banks begin to do?

13 P 363 What part of Europe was conquered by the Muslims? P 364 What could women legally do? P 364 What was outlawed? P 365 How many wives could Muslims have? P 365 Why did women cover their faces? P 366 What promoted Islamic values? P 366 Who worked to help the poor? P 368 Who influenced the Muslims with kingship? P 368 Why did Arabs gain interest in science and math? P 369 Who’s traditions were copied?

14 When the Mali-koy reached Timbuktu on his way back, he collected ships and small boats on which he transported their families and luggage, together with his own women, as far as his country, for the riding animals were to exhausted to use. When the ships, carrying the sharifs from Mecca, reached the town of Kami, the Diennekoy…attacked the ships and plundered all that they contained. They took the sharifs ashore and revolted against the Mali-koy. But when the people of the ships told them about the sharifs and informed them of their high station, they attended them, and installed them in a nearby place called Shinshin. It is said that the sharifs of the towns of Kay are descended from them. This is the end of the story of the pilgrimage of the Mali-koy, Kankan Musa… As for Mali, it is a vast region and an immense country, containing many towns and villages. The authority of the Sultan of Mali extends over all with force and might. We have heard the common people of our time say that there are four sultans in the world, not counting the supreme sultan, and they are the Sultan of Baghdad, the Sultan of Egypt, the Sultan of Bornu, and the Sultan of Mali Ie…Supreme Sultan is found in Constantinople. Sharif—means exalted one Mahmud Kati, a native scholar and Islamic judge of Timbuktu(1468-1593 C.E.), The Chronicle of the Seeker.

15 Neither the Kharijities nor the Bedouins are famous for their prowess as mounted bowmen. But the Turk will hit from his saddle an animal, a bird, a target, a man, a couching animal, a marker post or a bird of prey stooping on its quarry. His horse may be exhausted from being galloped and reined in, wheeled to right and left, and mounted and dismounted: but he himself goes on shooting, loosing ten arrows before the Kharijite has let fly one. He gallops his horse up a hillside or down a gully faster than the Kharijite can make his go on the flat. The Turk has two pairs of eyes, one at the front and the other at the back of his head… They train their horsemen to carry two or even three bows, and spare bowstrings in proportion. Thus in the hour of battle the Turk has on him everything needful for himself, his weapon and the care of his steed. As for their ability to stand trotting, sustained galloping, long night rides and cross-country journeys, it is truly extraordinary… Know that every nation, people, generation or tribe that shows itself outstanding in craftsmanship or pre-eminant in eloquence, the various branches of learning, the establishment of empires or the art of war…Good examples are the Chinese in craftsmanship, the Greeks in philosophy and literature, the Arabs in fields that we mean to deal with in their proper place…and the Turks in the art of war. Abu Uthman Amr ibn Bahr(776 -869 C.E.) a popular essayist of his day, The Merits of the Turks and of the Imperial Army as a Whole.

16 “To govern the state by law is to praise the right and blame the wrong. The law does not fawn on the noble…Whatever the law applies to, the wise cannot reject nor can the brave defy. Punishment for fault never skips ministers, reward for good never misses commoners. Therefore, to correct the faults of the high, to rebuke the vices of the low, to suppress disorders, to decide against mistakes, to subdue the arrogant, to straighten the crooked, and to unify the folkways of the masses, nothing could match the law. To warn the officials and overawe the people, to rebuke obscenity and danger, and to forbid falsehood and deceit, nothing could match penalty. If penalty is severe, the noble cannot discriminate against the humble.” Han China—Han Fei

17 …The people being unsophisticated, wealth abound; when the people are extravagant, cold and hunger will follow. We pray that the salt, iron, and liquor monopolies and the system of equitable marketing be abolished so that the rural pursuits may be encouraged, people be deterred from entering the secondary occupations, and agriculture be materially and financially benefited. The Lord Grand Secretary said: When the Xiongnu rebelled against our authority and frequently raided and devastated the frontier settlements, to be constantly on the watch for them was a great strain upon the soldiery of the Middle Kingdom(Han Wudi); but without measures of precaution being taken, these forays and depredations would never cease. The late Emperor, grieving at the long suffering of the frontier settlers who live in fear of capture by the barbarians, caused consequently forts and signal stations to be built, where garrisons were held ready against the nomads. When the revenue for the defense of the frontier fell short, the salt and iron monopoly was established, the liquor excise and the system of equable marketing introduced; goods were multiplied and wealth increased so as to furnish the frontier expenses. Now our critics here, who demand that these measures be abolished, at home would have the hoard of the treasury entirely depleted, and abroad would deprive the border of provision for its defense; they would expose our soldiers who defend the barriers and mount the walls to all the hunger and the cold of the borderland. Author Unknown

18 Chinese Empires Done to song Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han Sui, Tang, Song Yuan, Ming, Qing Mao Tse Tung, Mao Tse Tung

19 Chapter 15-China P 376 How was the Sui a demanding dynasty? P 377 What was built to help trade? P 377 What two economies were brought together? P 379 What reasons allowed for the Tang to be successful? P 379 What was provided for officials? P 379 Why was the equal-field system promoted? P 379 How was bureaucracy maintained? P 379 What region was brought under Tang control?

20 P 381 What two reasons weakened the Tang? P 382 What did Song put emphasis on and why? P 382 Why were nomads successful in the 10-12 th Centuries? P 383 What dynasties invaded Vietnam? P 384 What farming techniques were adopted? P 384 How was the population growth reflected? P 385 What did farmers begin to do? P 386 What was done to young girls and why? P 386 Why did Porcelain become more spread out?

21 P 386 What was used in replace of coal? P 387 What Tang development was used militarily? P 387 What did printers begin to have? P 389 What were some ships powered by? P 389 What was developed to increase trade? P 389 What were private parties unable to do? P 389 What was put on the money? P 392 What religion came to China by the Silk Road? P 392 Why was Buddhism attractive?

22 Often many young men gather in teahouses to practice singing or playing musical instruments. To give such amateur performances is called “getting posted.” A “social teahouse” is more of a community gathering place than a mere place that sells tea. Often tea-drinking is but an excuse, and people are rather generous when it comes to the tips. There is a special kind of teahouse where pimps and gigolos hang out. Another kinds is occupied by people from various trades and crafts who use them as places to hire help, but apprentices, and conduct business. These teahouses are called “trade heads.” “Water teahouses” are in fact pleasure houses, the tea being a cover. Some youths are quite willing to spend their money there, which is called “dry tea money.”… Anonymous author at the time of Marco Polo describing the city of Hangzhou(1235 C.E.) A record of musings on the eastern capital

23 All those who engage in business should do so in accordance with their own capacity. They should refrain from careless investment and excessive greed, lest in the end they achieve nothing… In the farming business, which is the most difficult business to manage, how can you afford not to calculate your financial and labor capacities carefully? Only when you are certain that you have sufficient funds and labor to assure success should you launch an enterprise. Anyone who coverts more than he can manage is likely to fall into carelessness and irresponsibility…Thus, to procure more land is to increase trouble, not profit. On the other hand, anyone who plans carefully, begins with good methods, and continues in the same way can reasonably expect success and does not have to rely on luck. The proverb says, ‘Owning a great deal of emptiness is less desirable than reaping from a narrow patch of land.”…For the farmer who is engaged in the management of fields, the secret lies not in expanding the farmland, but in balancing finance and labor. In the farmer can achieve that, he can expect prosperity and abundance… Chen Pu, author during the Song Dynasty(1149 C.E.) The Craft of Farming.

24 P 392 How did some Chinese view the Buddhists? P 394 What two religions drew inspiration from each other? P 395 What region was taken over by the Chinese? P 396 What did Korea never establish? P 396 What did the Viets adopt? P 397 What was the role of women in Vietnam?

25 When foreigners come there from other lands to their business…men come and ask them whether they do not desire a woman; these young women and girls themselves also come and present themselves, from whom they may choose the one most agreeable to them, provided they agree what he shall pay for certain months. Once they agree about money, she comes to his house, and serves him by day as his maidservant and by night as his wedded wife. He is then not able to consort with other women or he will be in grave trouble with his wife, while she is similarly wholly forbidden to converse with other men, but the marriage lasts as long as he keeps his residence there, in good peace and unity. Author Unknown, Early traders of Vietnam in the 1300s

26 I cannot bear men who believe that women serving the Palace are bound to be frivolous and wicked. Yet I suppose their prejudice is understandable. After all, women at Court do not spend their time hiding modestly behind fans and screens, but walk about, looking openly at people they chance to meet. Yes, they see everyone face to face, not only ladies-in-waiting like themselves, but even Their Imperial Majesties, High Court Nobles, senior courtiers, and other gentlemen of high rank. In the presence of such exalted personages the women in the Palace are all equally brazen, whether they be the maids of ladies-in-waiting, or the relations of the Court ladies who have come to visit them, or housekeepers, or latrine-cleaners, or women who are of no more value than a roof-tile or a pebble. Small wonder that the young men regard them as immodest! Yet are the gentlemen themselves any less so? They are not exactly bashful when it comes to looking at the great people in the Palace. No, everyone at Court is much the same in this respect. Women who have served in the Palace, but who later get married and live at home, are called Madam and receive the most respectful treatment. To be sure, people often consider that these women, who have displayed their face to all and sundry during their years at Court, are lacking feminine grace. Sei Sbonagon, a lady in waiting for Empress Sadako(990-1000 C.E.) The Pillow Book

27 P 397 What were the early inhabitants of Japan? P 397 What religion was recognized in Japan? P 398 Why have emperors survived in Japan? P 398 How did women contribute to society? P 399 Who gained power during political turmoil?

28 After a night of sleep people should get up early in the morning: they should walk briskly around the yard; they should loosen their hair and slow down their movements; by these means they can fulfill their wish to live healthfully. During this period one’s body should be encouraged to live and not be killed; one should give to it freely and not take away from it; one should reward it and not punish it. All this is in harmony with the breath of Spring and all this is the method for protection of one’s life… The three months of Winter are called the period of closing and storing. Water freezes and the Earth cracks open. One should not disturb one’s Yang. People should retire early at night and rise late in the morning and they should wait for the rising sun. They should suppress and conceal their wishes, as though they had be fulfilled. People should try to escape the cold and they should seek warmth, they should not perspire upon the skin, they should let themselves be deprived of breath of the cold… Those who disobey the laws of Winter will suffer an injury of the kidneys; for them Spring will bring impotence, and they will produce little. Author Uknown, 300 B.C.E, The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Medicine.

29 Brahmans maintain that only they are the highest class, and the others are below them. They are white, the others black; only they are pure, and not the others. Only they are the true sons of Brahma, born from his mouth, born of Brahma, creations of Brahma, heirs of Brahma. Now what does the worth Gautama say to that?” “Do the brahmans really maintain this, Asslayana, when they’re born of women just like anyone else, of Brahman women who have their periods and conceive, give birth and nurse their children, just like any other women?” “For all you say, this what they think…” “Have you ever heard that in the lands of the Greeks and Kambojas and other people on the borders there are only two classes, masters and slaves, and a master can become a slave and vice versa?” …”Again if a man is a murderer, a thief, or an adulterer, or commits other grave sins, when his body breaks up on death does he pass on to purgatory if he’s a kshatriya, vaishya, or shudra, but not if he’s a Brahman?” Buddhism and the Caste, part of Buddhist Canon, date unknown.

30 Very rich person use a measure instead of scales in business transactions of gold or silver. The markets are noisy and bustling, and are filled with a great store of gold and silver damasks, brocades, and similar wares. The artisans have the true artistic spirit. The king, the officials, and all the people serve Heaven. They also have a Buddha by the name of Mahiawu. Every seven days they cut their hair and clip their fingernails. At the New Year for a whole month they fast and chant prayers. Daily they pretty to Heaven five times. The peasants work their fields without fear of floods or droughts; a sufficiency of water for irrigation is supplied by a river whose source is not known. During the season when no cultivation is in progress, the level of the river remains even with the banks; with the beginning of cultivation it rises day by day. Then it is that an official is appointed to watch the river and to await the highest water level, when he summons the people, who then ploy and so their fields. When they have had enough water, the river returns to its former level. There is a great harbor in this country, over two hundred feet deep, which opens to the southeast on the sea and has branches connecting with all quarters of the country. On either bank of the harbor the people have their dwellings and here daily are held fairs, where boats and wagons crowd in, all laden with hemp, wheat, millet, beans, sugar, meal, oil…. Zhau Rugua, Inspector of Foreign Trade for the province of Fujian(1178 C.E.), A Description of Foreign Peoples. From the Song Dynasty

31 Chapter 16-South Asia P 406 Who forced their way into India? P 407 What was built and provided for subjects? P 408 Where did Muslims take their religion? P 408 Why did Indians turn from Islam? P 409 Who dominated the waters south of India? P 410 Who traded in southern India without difficulty? P 411 Why was irrigation important? P 411 What appeared in large numbers? P 411 What happened to the population? P 412 What was traded from India? P 412 What did life revolve around?

32 P 413 What did mariners increasingly do? P 414 What two industries emerged? P 415 Who became the main link to South Africa? P 415 What conflicted with the Axum? P 417 What helped to maintain order? P 418 What formed as number of merchants increased? P 419 What religion benefited from decline of Buddhism? P 420 -22 Why did some adopt Islam? P 423 What was adopted as the principal political authority? P 424 Why did elites adopt Hinduism and Buddhism? P 425 Who maintained trade between China and India? P 427 Who noted that many had converted to Islam?

33 Before entering on our exposition, we must form an adequate idea of that which renders it so particularly difficult to penetrate to the essential nature of any Indian subject. The knowledge of these difficulties will either facilitate the progress or our work, or serve as an apology for any shortcomings of ours. For the reader must always bear in mind that the Hindus entirely differ from us in every respect, many a subject appearing intricate and obscure which would be perfectly clear if there were more connection between us. The barriers which separate Muslims and Hindus rest on different causes. First, they differ from us in everything which other nations have in common. And here we first mention the language, although the difference of language also exist between other nations… Secondly, they totally differ from us in religion, as we believe in nothing in which they believe, and vice versa. On the whole, there is very little disputing about theological topics among themselves; at the utmost, they fight with words, but they will never stake their soul or body or their property on religious controversy. On the contrary, all their fanaticism is directed against those who do not belong to them—against all foreigners. They call them mleccha, ie impure, and forbid having any connection with them, be intermarriage or any other kind of relationship, or by sitting, eating, and drinking with them, because thereby, they think, they would be polluted…. Abul Railban al-biruni, astronomer, mathematician, and linguist, and traveler (1030 C.E.) Description of India

34 Chapter 17-Western Europe P 434 Why did Western Europe decline in population? P 435 What groups invaded Western Rome and where? P 436 Who lost influence in Western Europe? P 436 Who led Franks against the Romans in the late 400s P 437 What did many invaders convert to? P 437 Who began to support the Franks? P 437 How was the battle of Tours important? P 439 Why did Charlemagne travel throughout the empire? P 439 Who was relied on for authority? P 440 Who pursued their own interests? P 440 What groups invaded the Frankish Empire? P 441 What development did the Norsemen make? P 442 Protection eventually fell into the hands of what people? P 443 Who no longer was subordinate to kings?

35 P 444 How did nobles build military relationships? P 445 What was the relationship which formed? P 445 Who worked the land? P 445 What were the obligations of serfs? P 446 What did a manor consist of? P 446 Why did trade slow somewhat? P 446 What farming innovations formed? P 449 Where did maritime trade flourish? P 450 How did the Franks view themselves? P 450 What did the Popes do in return? P 450 What was persuaded to Priests? P 450 What Christianity peacefully pass on? P 452 What did St. Benedict establish? P 453 How did the church promise salvation overtime? P 453 What did monasteries serve as?

36 …The Franks declared: “These Maghribis came and went in our country and we treated them well and took nothing from them. But when they interfered in the war, joining with their brother Muslims against us, we were compelled to place this tax upon them.’ In the payment of this tax, the Maghribis are pleasingly reminded of their vexing of the enemy, and thus the payment of it is lightened and its harshness made tolerable. We moved from Tibnin—may God destroy it---at daybreak on Monday. Our way lay through continuous farms and ordered settlements, whose inhabitants were all Muslims, living comfortably with the Franks. God protect us from such temptation. They surrender their crops to the Franks at harvest time, and pay as well as poll-tax of one and five qirat for each person. Other than that, they are not interfered with, save for a light tax on the fruits of trees. Their houses and all their effects are left to their full possession. All the coastal cities occupied by the Franks are managed in this fashion, their rural districts, the villages, and farms, belonging to the Muslims. But their hearts have been seduced, for they observe how unlike them in ease and comfort are their brethren in the Muslim regions under their governors. Abu al-Husayn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Jubayr, a native Muslim in Spain(1184 C.E.) on his journeys from Spain. Travels.

37 They say that John of Cayworth holds one house and thirty acres of land, and he owes 2 s. a year at Easter and Michaelmas, and he owes one cock and two hens at Christmas worth 4 s. And he ought to harrow for two days at the sowing at Lent with one man and his own horse and harrow, the value of the work is 4 d., and he receives from the lord on each day three meals worth 3 d., and the lord will thus lose 1 d.; and so this harrowing is worth nothing to the service of the lord. And he ought to carry the manure of the lord for two days with one cart using his own two oxen, the work to value 8 s., and he receives from the lord three meals of the above value each day; and so the work is worth 2 d. clear. And he should find one man for two days to mow the meadow of the lord, who can mow an estimated one acre and a half: the value of mowing one acre is 6 d.; and the total is 9 d.; and he receives for each day three meals of the above value, and thus the mowing is worth 4 d. clear… And it must be noted that all the aforesaid villeins may not marry their daughters nor have their sons tonsured, nor can they cut down timber growing on the lands they hold, without the personal approval of the bailiff or servant of the lord, and then for building and no other purpose… The sons or daughters of the aforesaid villeins will give to enter the tenement after the death of their ancestors as much as they gave in rent per year. Duties of John Cayworth by the lord Battle Abbey(1307), Dutties of a Villei n

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