Presentation on theme: "1.Once freed slaves were off to be their own person, what are some things they took advantage of from the start? 2.Who was Oliver O. Howard and what was."— Presentation transcript:
1.Once freed slaves were off to be their own person, what are some things they took advantage of from the start? 2.Who was Oliver O. Howard and what was he apart of? 3.Explain Lincoln’s 10% Reconstruction Plan.
4. What is a sharecropper and how did this in some ways push freed slaves back into ownership? 5. What were Black Codes? What were some examples of them? 6. What happened to Jefferson Davis?
7. What was the Freedman’s Bureau? What was it made to provide?
RECONSTRUCTION Ch. 22
Questions: How would the South, physically devastated by war and socially revolutionized by emancipation be rebuilt? How would the liberated blacks fare as free men and women?
How would the Southern states be reintegrated into the Union? Who would direct the process of Reconstruction? –Southern States –President-Congress
What Happens to Jefferson Davis? 2 Year imprisonment Pardoned along with several other confederate officers by President Johnson.
Aftermath of the South Burnt buildings Transportation destroyed Agriculture Crippled Slave-labor system collapsed Livestock ran off
Plantations Poverty Gutted Mansions Lost investments Worthless land Lost $2 billion in slave investments
We are free!!!!!!!!! Now what do we do?
Searched for long-lost spouses, parents, and children Black communities moved together Church became a focus –Baptists –Methodist
The Freedman’s Bureau
Welfare agency Provided –Food –Clothing –Medical –Education 200,000 blacks to read Union General Oliver O. Howard
Ten Percent Plan, 1863 Readmission after 10% –Oath of Allegiance to the Union –Pledge to abide emancipation
Why would Lincoln opt for only 10% in the South rather than more? What kind of reasoning is behind this?
Wade-Davis Bill, % Reconstruction Plan Oath of allegiance Pledge of emancipation Bill was pocket-vetoed by Lincoln
Self-Made Man Didn’t get along with Republicans Southerner Democrat From Tennessee who didn’t trust the South Didn’t fit in!!!!!!!!!
Congress vs. Johnson Little compromise. Republican Congress Vetoed bills Will be impeached
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan State Admission after: Disenfranchised rich planters (20,000 & up)but could appeal for pardon (many granted). State conventions to repeal ordinances of secession. Clarify debts Ratify 13 th amendment
By Dec. 6, 1865 “…Union restored.” Many states readmitted swiftly Pattern of new governments clear –Resurrection of planter elite Republicans are disgusted to see former Confederate leaders back in Congress.
Black Codes President Johnson’s attempt to regulate the affairs of emancipated Blacks in the South –Forbid to be on a jury –Forbid from renting or leasing land –Forbid to vote
“Sir Veto” or Andy Veto” Vetoes extension of Freedmen’s Bureau Republicans strike back with: Civil Rights Bill: 1866, 14 th amendment - citizenship for freed slaves, removed confederate leaders from public office, establishes fair debt (Johnson tried to veto)
Radical Republicans Reconstruction Act of 1867 –Divided the South into 5 military districts –20,000 Union soldiers –Each southern state had to grant full suffrage to ALL Black males. –wanted to completely uproot planter aristocracy
Radical Republican Affectionate toward the freed slave agenda. Wanted to be buried in a black cemetery. Pushed for equality for all black men and women.
Union League Building black churches/schools. Recruiting militias to protect black communities. New political role in the South Running for election Getting involved with the political process Women got involved
QUIZ It’s Monday….why not. It’s already a bad day!
15 th Amendment – Suffrage for Blacks Safeguards fears that states will manipulate laws to deny black suffrage. Prohibits denial of vote based on color or previous condition of servitude.
Still fails… Poll taxes Literacy tests Grandfather clauses Jim Crow Laws
Sharecropping/Tenant Farming the fate of many
Disappointment Freed slaves were given land, supplies, and seeds to start their own farm. Owned by the plantation owners. Problem: Couldn’t grow enough to make a profit. –Had to either give part of crop or pay renter’s fee.
Some move north and west
Women played a prominent role in the abolitionist movement. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Susan B. Anthony Women left out of the 15 th amendment & were furious. Fredrick Douglass: 15 th amendment is the “Negro hour” 50 years later, women get the right to vote.
Ku Klux Klan “Invisible Empire of the South” 1866, emerge to intimidate blacks from voting through violence White supremacy
Failure to Impeach 1867, Tenure of Office Act – president must get senate approval to remove appointees 1868, Johnson removes secretary of war “Edwin Stanton” 126 to 47 vote in the House for impeachment. One vote short in the Senate –Johnson agrees to stop opposing Republican policies in return for office
Anything good about Johnson???
Alaska Purchased from Russians in 1867 for 7.2 mill by Secretary of state William Seward –Unpopular but sanctioned, “Seward’s Icebox” –Russians friendly to north in civil war –Rumors of resources
1872 – Freedmen’s Bureau ended 1877 – Reconstruction ends