Presentation on theme: "Q.O.D.: Napoleon: - American Revolution (for democratic independence from Britain) supported by King of France (b/c of French rivalry w/ U.K.) - French."— Presentation transcript:
Q.O.D.: Napoleon: - American Revolution (for democratic independence from Britain) supported by King of France (b/c of French rivalry w/ U.K.) - French King = terrible; American Revolution inspires FRENCH REVOLUTION - French king overthrown during French Revolution, followed by… - A decade (1789-1799) of civil war in France is followed by dictatorial rule of Napoleon (1800-1815) - Napoleon got greedy, conquered much of continental Europe (Napoleonic Wars); finally loses power after invading Russia (in winter); Euro alliance (esp. UK) gangs up on Napoleon, defeats him, exiles him (twice) - Europe has to clean up, reset itself
1) Congress Of Vienna (1815): A meeting of European leaders (monarchs) to stability, peace, and security in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon… a party and a peace treaty 2) Congress of Vienna dominated by: 1. Great Britain (aka United Kingdom) 2. Austria 3. Prussia (today: Germany) 4. Russia 5. France … collectively referred to as the five “Great Powers”
3) Metternich → Austrian foreign minister, diplomat. Austrian King's “right hand man”. 4) Metternich HATED & DISTRUSTED democracy: - Threatened proper rule of monarchs - Unstable (“mob rule”) - Breakdown of law & order = chaos - Would ultimately lead to more wars, dictatorships Proof? FRANCE & NAPOLEON!
5) Strategies used to re-create peace and stability across Europe at the Congress Of Vienna (1815): 1. Contain France: prevent future French aggression by building up a buffer zone of stable kingdoms on French borders 2. Establish a “Balance of Power” among the five “Great Powers” so that no one power would become too dominant and create a new threat in Europe 3. Restore monarchs to power across Europe to bring back familiar and traditional government, called… 6) Legitimacy: the belief that monarchy is the best and most proper form of government to ensure stability.
7) France at the Congress of Vienna: - Remains a “Great Power” (even in defeat!) - Kept most original (pre-war) territory. - Kept non-European territories (overseas colonies) - Kept their ARMY - Got a restored monarchy - Kept their independence (SOVEREIGNTY) WHY??? Maintain BALANCE OF POWER among the “Great Powers”, avoid future wars of vengeance from France, or opportunistic aggression from the other powers.
8) Effectiveness of Congress of Vienna? - Cooperation of many Euro nations (a rarity!) - No one bearing a grudge (not even France) - Balance of Power restored… avoided wars, for awhile (nearly 40 years, until the Crimean War) - Monarchs pledge mutual aid to political disturbances & threats Conclusion: a moderate success, but only temporarily... peace will unravel during the next 60 years, culminating in World War I… why could this peace not last?)
9) Types of monarchy: ABSOLUTE – one king/family has complete power CONSTITUTIONAL – ruler inherits power by birth, but power is checked by an elected legislative body (i.e. Parliament)... voting rights are only permitted for aristocratic nobles (wealthy landowners) Absolute monarchy will diminish over time, as a growing industrial middle class demands more political say (voting!).
10) European monarchs remain “nervous about the legacy of the French Revolution”: Ideals of the French Revolution - Liberty (freedom!) - Equality (in treatment under the law, and in terms of economic opportunity) - Fraternity (brotherhood, working together) …or, in a word, DEMOCRACY, which would replace the role & power of the monarch with some level of popular sovereignty in organizing the state. Bottom line: because of this, and other reasons, the monarchs are on borrowed time!
BONUS - Other headaches for monarchs: Revolutionary social, political, economic IDEAS are spreading: - A growing industrial middle class, and eventually the working class, will demand universal suffrage. - Minority ethnic nationalism will motivate more attempts at independence. - Capitalists don’t want to be limited by a monarchy; if there is economic growth to be had, they will seek an alternate form of government, if necessary! - An angry and exploited working class, frustrated in its attempts at a better life, will seek socialism, OR… become more radicalized, and turn to Marxism.
11) Austrian, Russian, and Prussian [absolute] monarchs pledge mutual support against any revolutionary activities in any of their nations: They are all concerned that revolutionary ideas (democracy, nationalism, Marxism) in one nation could easily spread and become actual revolutions that unseat them from their throne, again upsetting the “balance of power” arranged at the Congress of Vienna. They know… ideas don’t stop at the border!
12) The “Balance of Power” achieved at the Congress of Vienna will FAIL one century later: - France is weaker than in pre-Napoleonic times - Britain & Prussia (Germany) get stronger (why?) - Nationalism (aka patriotism, or love of homeland) will inspire more revolutions around the world … nationalism will either weaken old empires, or strengthen new ones - Industrialization will create a larger middle class, that demands democracy, destabilizing monarchy The ‘balance of power’, and the traditional system of monarchy it depended upon, will continually weaken during the second half of the 1800’s, resulting in drastic changes in the world in the early 1900’s, as a result of World War I.