Presentation on theme: "Q.O.D.: Napoleon: - American Revolution supported by King (Louis XVI) of France (French rivalry w/ U.K.) - French King = terrible; French inspired by American."— Presentation transcript:
Q.O.D.: Napoleon: - American Revolution supported by King (Louis XVI) of France (French rivalry w/ U.K.) - French King = terrible; French inspired by American Revolution against monarchy - French monarch overthrown during French Revolution (1789-1799) … compare: U.S. Constitution ratified in 1788 - French period of unrest, terror, conflict, civil war followed by dictatorial rule of Napoleon (1800-1815) - Napoleon got greedy, conquered much of continental Europe (Napoleonic Wars); suffers great losses invading Russia (in winter) + Euro alliance (esp. UK) gangs up on Napoleon, defeats him, exiles him (twice) - Europe has to clean up, reset itself
1) Congress Of Vienna (1815): A(n 8-month) meeting of European leaders (monarchs) to establish policies and treaties for stability, peace, and security in Europe following the defeat of Napoleon… a party and a peace treaty 2) Congress of Vienna dominated by: 1. Great Britain (aka United Kingdom) 2. Austria 3. Prussia (today: Germany) 4. Russia 5. France … collectively referred to as the five “Great Powers”
3) Metternich → Austrian foreign minister, diplomat. Austrian King's “right hand man”. Organized and ran the Congress of Vienna. 4) Metternich HATED & DISTRUSTED democracy: - Threatened proper rule of monarchs - Unstable (“mob rule”) - Breakdown of law & order = chaos - Would ultimately lead to more wars, dictatorships Proof? FRANCE & NAPOLEON!
5) Strategies used to re-create peace and stability across Europe at the Congress Of Vienna (1815): 1. Contain France: prevent future French aggression by building up a buffer zone of stable kingdoms on French borders (German confederation, Netherlands, Switzerland, Sardinia) 2. Establish a “Balance of Power” among the five “Great Powers” so that no one power would become too dominant and create a new threat in Europe 3. Restore monarchs to power across Europe to bring back familiar and traditional stability, called… 6) Legitimacy: the belief that monarchy is the best and most proper form of government to ensure stability.
7) France at the Congress of Vienna: - Remains a “Great Power” (even in defeat!) - Kept most original (pre-war) territory. - Kept non-European territories (overseas colonies) - Kept their ARMY - Got a restored monarchy - Kept their independence (SOVEREIGNTY) WHY? Maintain BALANCE OF POWER among the “Great Powers”, avoid future wars of vengeance from France, or opportunistic aggression from the other powers.
8) Effectiveness of Congress of Vienna? - Cooperation of many Euro nations (a rarity!) - No one bearing a grudge (not even France) - Balance of Power restored… avoided wars, for awhile (nearly 40 years, until the Crimean War) - Monarchs pledge mutual aid to any political disturbances & threats they faced Conclusion: a moderate success, but only temporarily... peace will unravel during next 60 years, culminating in World War I almost exactly a century later. Why could this peace not last?
9) Effect of Congress of Vienna on British industry: PEACE brings PROSPERITY… allows for increased trade, commerce, expansion & integration of British industrial economy with the rest of Europe. Result: British industrial lead grows, but other powers will work to close the gap and compete against them; eventually, the “balance of power” achieved in the Congress of Vienna will become very UNbalanced.
10) Types of monarchy: ABSOLUTE – one king/family has complete power CONSTITUTIONAL – ruler inherits power by birth, but power is checked by an elected legislative body (i.e. Parliament)... voting rights are only permitted for aristocratic nobles (wealthy landowners) Absolute monarchy will diminish over time, as a growing industrial middle class demands more political participation (i.e. voting).
11) European monarchs remain “nervous about the legacy of the French Revolution”: Ideals of the French Revolution - Liberty (freedom!) - Equality (in treatment under the law, and in economic opportunity) - Fraternity (brotherhood, working together) …or, in a word, DEMOCRACY, which would replace the role & power of the monarch with some level of popular sovereignty in organizing the state. Bottom line: because of this, and other reasons, the monarchs are on borrowed time!
12) Other headaches for monarchs: Revolutionary social, political, economic IDEAS are spreading: - A growing industrial middle class, and eventually the working class, will demand universal suffrage. - Minority ethnic nationalism will motivate increasing attempts at independence. - Capitalists don’t want to be limited by a monarchy; if there is economic growth to be had, they will seek an alternate form of government, if necessary! - An angry and exploited working class, frustrated in its attempts at a better life, will seek socialism, OR… become more radicalized, and turn to Marxism.
13) Austrian, Russian, and Prussian [absolute] monarchs pledge mutual support against any revolutionary activities in any of their nations: They are all concerned that revolutionary ideas (democracy, nationalism, Marxism) in one nation could easily spread and become actual revolutions that unseat them from their throne, again upsetting the “balance of power” arranged at the Congress of Vienna. They know: ideas don’t stop at the border!
14) Austrian, Russian, and Prussian monarchs couched their mutual support in religious terms (a “Holy Alliance”, using “Christian principles” to “combat the forces of revolution”): I. “forces of revolution”: - Democracy, suffrage, socialism, independence… - Liberty, equality, fraternity … SHARED power and OPPORTUNITY for those not born of privilege to create a better, more dignified life! II. “Christian principles”, according to monarchs & nobles: - Law, order, obedience, acceptance… - Propagandizes church teachings for their own purposes, to give legitimacy to monarchs (“divine right”), however tyrannical or incompetent they are! III. “Christian principles”, as agents of revolution: Treat others as you wish to be treated; be your brother’s keeper; serve the poor and needy; greed and avarice are sinful… … these sentiments are captured in the social, political, and economic movements above!
15) The Napoleonic Wars and Congress of Vienna inspire Latin America: Europe’s mess is Latin America’s opportunity! Nationalistic movements are successful, as most of Central & South America gain independence (from Spain, Portugal, and France… nations that are undercut by the effects of the Napoleonic Wars) The Western Hemisphere, in turn, inspires Europe: Democratic ideals and successful revolutions from the Americas will continually inspire Europeans... …and nag Euro monarchs, who will be forced to continually suppress such “forces of revolution”. Many Europeans will flee to the Americas to avoid such suppression… other will stay to fight on.
16) The “Balance of Power” achieved at the Congress of Vienna is unsustainable, and ultimately unrealistic: - France less stable than in pre-Napoleonic times - Britain & Prussia (Germany) get stronger (why?) - Nationalism (aka patriotism, or love of homeland based upon some common identity) will inspire more revolutionary activity around the world - Nationalism will either weaken old nations & empires, or strengthen and give rise to new ones The ‘balance of power’, and the traditional system of monarchy it depended upon, will continually weaken during the second half of the 1800’s, resulting in a drastic re-ordering of the world in the early 1900’s, as a result of World War I.
17) Bigger European impact: American or French Revolution? According to European monarchs, the latter: → First revolt that toppled a monarchy in Europe! (British crown remained in power after American Revolution) → France was a major power, and right next door to other European powers. → Most European monarchs dismissed the American revolution as an “experiment in democracy” doomed to failure, believing that “mob rule” would ultimately lead to the same chaos that occurred in France… but, being an ocean away, it was not considered a threat. → Consider, too: the Monroe Doctrine = U.S. stays out of European political affairs!
18) BONUS: Familiar historical themes today?
1815, Congress of Vienna (keep balance of power!), Great Powers: 1. Britain 2. Prussia (Germany) 3. Russia 4. Austria 5. France 2013, United Nations (keep balance of power!), Security Council: 1. U.S. 2. Britain 3. Russia 4. France 5. China