Presentation on theme: "The Age of Napoleon Bonaparte Before the Sphinx 1868 Jean-Leon Gerome Sphinx Laser!"— Presentation transcript:
The Age of Napoleon Bonaparte Before the Sphinx 1868 Jean-Leon Gerome Sphinx Laser!
Napoleon in the Revolution During the French Revolution, Napoleon generally favored the Jacobins, or whoever was leading it at the time. He was eager to make a name for himself in the military. Young Napoleon Bonaparte Young Napoleon Dynamite
The Rise of Napoleon Napoleon rose quickly in the army because he won many battles. When he lost a battle, he censored the press so that no one would know about the loss.
In 1799 he helped overthrow the Directory and made a new ruling party, and declared himself “Consul (leader) for life”. When someone overthrows the current government and creates one himself, it is known as a coup d'état. (Koo-Day-Ta) In 1804 Napoleon declared himself Emperor of France.
Napoleon invited the Pope to crown him Emperor, but took the crown from the Pope and placed it on his own head. This was to show that he was superior to the Church and answered to no one. Napoleon about to crown himself.
Why People Liked Him Consolidated and Strengthened Central Government. Controlled/Stabilized Prices Built roads Recognized religious freedom Opened jobs to all (On merit, not status) Invited refugees from revolution back to France. THE MAN COULD DANCE!
Napoleonic Code Laws stating the Enlightenment principles such as equality to all citizens, religious toleration, and abolition of feudalism. Did not include women’s rights. Sorry Ladies Your time will come.
As a military leader, Napoleon was very successful. Took on world powers and developed a new plan for every battle to keep his opponents guessing. His enemies said he was worth 40,000 soldiers by himself. Me and my horse… Vs. You and your 40,000
Napoleon Expands French Borders Napoleon took over the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Italy and Germany. He divided up kingdoms, made new ones, and put friends and family members in charge of them. He also used forceful diplomacy to get others on his side.
Nationalism Nationalism: Pride in one’s country. Napoleon’s accomplishments created a sense of nationalism for the people of France. Napoleon’s armies also sparked ideas of reform and revolution in other countries. Liberty Leading the People Eugène Delacroix 1830
Continental System Britain managed to avoid Napoleon’s powers so Napoleon used the Continental System to weaken Britain. Napoleon closed all European ports in his control to British ships. Britain responded with a blockade on European ships. Both sides attacked ships that they believed were on the other side. British attacks on American ships were part of what caused the War of 1812.
Continental System cont’d The blockade was a failure; Britain remained powerful. The French blockade of Britain created a scarcity of goods, and prices rose. People began to get mad at Napoleon. British Bulldog Britain Stays Strong Stiff Upper Lip
Nationalism Backfires The French carried ideas of nationalism to the countries they took over. This worked against them because as each country developed its own nationalism, it grew to dislike France. This led to revolts against the French rule.
Nationalism Backfires cont’d Nationalist revolts against France weakened Napoleon’s hold over conquered countries. Forces in Spain were bled, and reinforcements sent by Napoleon only spurred Spanish nationalism. Third of May by Goya
Nationalism Backfires cont’d The Spanish used guerilla warfare to fight France. This type of fighting is made up of hit and runs. Napoleon needed his troops in other areas but had to leave them in Spain to maintain French control.
Austria noticed that Napoleon was having trouble with Spain and decided to revolt against French rule too. This was a failure, and Napoleon ended up with more land. Put my new land right over there.
Napoleon tries to Invade Russia Napoleon and Tsar Alexander I have a falling out over the continental system, Napoleon responds by invading Russia. Russian Tsar Alexander I and Napoleon were allies, but the tsar became unhappy with Napoleon’s Continental system, and withdrew his support.
The Russian Strategy As the French army marched across Russia, peasants retreated inward and burned villages and crops. This way the Russians avoided a battle with the French, but the French slowly begin to weaken. What other war(s) was this strategy used in? William Tecumseh Sherman Burning Georgia! 1864 Style
Failure As the winter went on, it got colder and conditions worsened, so Napoleon’s army was forced to retreat. Many of his men starved to death or died due to the weather. His invasion of Russia was a huge failure, and Napoleon lost his credibility as a good leader. FAIL!!!
King Louis XVIII Rules Napoleon gave up the throne to King Louis XVIII(18 th ) and went into exile. The transition went poorly and the people began to miss Napoleon. They feared that the King would return France to the old regime.
The Alliance Napoleon returned one year later to cheers from the French people. Russia, Great Britain, Austria, and Prussia formed an alliance against France.
Battle of Waterloo Battle of Waterloo: June 18, 1815. Many troops, one after another, attacked the French forces. The French were unable to handle the large amount of troops. The Alliance’s troops defeated Napoleon’s army in Belgium, and Napoleon again went into exile. He never returned to France.
“June 22. This morning I went to visit the field of battle, which is a little beyond the village of Waterloo, on the plateau of Mont St Jean; but on arrival there the sight was too horrible to behold. I felt sick in the stomach and was obliged to return. The multitude of carcasses, the heaps of wounded men with mangled limbs unable to move, and perishing from not having their wounds dressed or from hunger, as the Allies were, of course, obliged to take their surgeons and wagons with them, formed a spectacle I shall never forget. The wounded, both of the Allies and the French, remain in an equally deplorable state” – Major W. E Frye After Waterloo: Reminiscences of European Travel 1815-1819
Napoleon’s Legacy Consolidated revolution ideas Helped get France back on its feet Spread ideas of French revolution and nationalism Sold the Louisiana Territory to the US.
Congress of Vienna After Napoleon’s defeat in the Battle of Waterloo, European leaders met at the Congress of Vienna. Their goal was to create peace and protect the monarchy system. They met from September 1814 - June 1815.
Congress of Vienna cont’d The Congress of Vienna redrew the map of Europe and surrounded France by strong countries. They also restored “Legitimate” monarchs to the throne. King Louis XVIII was sent back to rule France.
Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain maintain the Alliance after the Congress of Vienna. Concert of Europe: European powers meet to discuss problems affecting the peace of Europe. King Louis XVIII made some legislative changes, but generally kept things the same as they were under Napoleon. The next major European war is World War I.