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Chapter 17 The Tide of War Turns 1863-1865. I.The Emancipation Proclamation A. Find Out 1. The reasons for the call for emancipation 2. The significance.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 The Tide of War Turns 1863-1865. I.The Emancipation Proclamation A. Find Out 1. The reasons for the call for emancipation 2. The significance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 17 The Tide of War Turns

2 I.The Emancipation Proclamation A. Find Out 1. The reasons for the call for emancipation 2. The significance of the Emancipation Proclamation 3. The response to the Proclamation 4. The Role of African-American soldiers in the war

3 B.Calls for Emancipation 1. Abolitionists urged Lincoln to free all enslaved persons 2. Frederick Douglas a. Moral and practical reasons b. Make war a war against slavery 3. Lincoln criticized for being too cautious 4. Feared Constitution didn’t give power to emancipate slaves (1) 5. Did not want to anger four border states (1)

4 Frederick Douglas, an escaped slave, was a strong voice for abolition for many years before the Civil War. He urged Lincoln to free all slaves on moral as well as practical reasons. Lincoln did not want to anger the border states nor divide the nation any further. Douglas wanted Lincoln to make the war a war against slavery.

5 “If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it. If I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that.” A. Lincoln Lincoln decided in the summer of 1862 to emancipate slaves in the Confederacy, hoping it would weaken the South. After the Union victory at Antietam, Lincoln decided to act

6 C.The Emancipation Proclamation 1. Lincoln’s first priority was always to preserve the union (2) 2. January 1, Freed very few slaves 4. Lincoln thought it would weaken the South but wanted to wait until North was in a position of strength (3) 5. Symbolic measure 6. Civil War became a war to preserve the Union AND to free slaves

7 Emancipation’s Affect on South’s Ability to fight the War Southerners had a dependence on slave labor It freed all slaves in Confederate territory and had a tremendous impact on the public, but freed very few slaves. (4) Some slaves did provide labor for Confederate army but are not allowed to serve which freed up more whites to serve in the army Not having slaves would make it difficult to provide food for troops as well as civilians Lincoln only freed slaves in South because he saw it as a military action and wasn’t sure if Constitution gave him power. (5)

8 D.Response to the Proclamation 1. Abolitionist were thrilled 2. People in the North were angered because they didn’t feel it went far enough. Wanted all slaves freed, including border states. No. Democrats thought it would prolong the war. (6) 3. Most Union soldiers welcomed it because it gave them a reason to fight. (7) 4. White southerners reacted with rage because slaves ran away and joined the Union army. (7)

9 E.African-American Soldiers 1. Emancipation Proclamation declared that African-Americans would be welcomed in armed services, and so they rushed to enlist (8) 2. Frederick Douglas argued for recruitment ,000 Black soldiers served 4. All Black regiments with white officers (9) 5. Given worst jobs and paid less (9)

10 F.The 54 th Massachusetts 1. Fought without pay (10) 2. Most famous black regiment in War (10) 3. July 1863, led a heroic attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina (10) 4. African-American soldiers were usually shot or sent to slavery if captured

11 A.Analyzing Causes and Recognizing Effects As you read this section, use the boxes labeled Causes to explain why President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Use the boxes labeled Effects to record the results of the proclamation. CausesEffects Emancipation Proclamation It would weaken the South. The North won a victory at Antietam, giving them a position of strength. The proclamation only Freed slaves in rebellion against the U.S. It gave Union soldiers a reason to fight. It brought thousands of African- Americans into the Union army.

12 EmancipationProclamation GroupResponse AbolitionistsThey were thrilled by the proclamation. They felt Lincoln should have freed all slaves, not just those in the South. Northern DemocratsMost were angered over the proclamation. They felt it would prolong the war by angering the South. Union SoldiersMost soldiers welcomed the proclamation. They felt it would weaken the South, and it gave them a reason to fight on. White SouthernersThey were enraged by the proclamation. Slaves began running away which deprived them of their labor. Black SouthernersThey welcomed the proclamation Many left plantations to join the Union army. B. Identifying Opinions Use the chart below to record the different reactions to the Emancipation Proclamation.

13 C. Solving Problems After the North began recruiting African-American soldiers into its army, Union officials wanted to pay black soldiers less than white soldiers. On the back of this paper, briefly explain the response of the 54 th Massachusetts Regiment to this plan. Members of the 54 th Massachusetts Regiment refused to accept their lower pay, which was to be less than the white soldiers were paid. They decided they would fight for the Union for no pay rather than lower pay.

14 II.War Affects Society A. Find Out 1. The discontent with the war 2. Anger over the draft laws 3. The economic effects of the war 4. How women aided the war effort and conditions in Northern and Southern prison camps

15 B.Disagreements About the War 1. South a. Confederate soldiers leave army b. Lost 40% of army by end of 1863 (1) c. Many were deserters d. Southern states didn’t coordinate war effort. Each state acted independently (2) 2. North a. Copperheads were northerners who favored peace with the South (3) b. Lincoln had protestors arrested (3) c. Suspended writ of habeas corpus, preventing the government from holding them without a trial (3)

16 C.The Draft Laws 1. South a. Able bodied men b. Planters who owned 20 or more slaves were exempt (4) c. Could hire substitutes for up to $6000 (4) d. “A rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight” 2. Both sides passed laws of conscription(5 Similar) 3. Both sides could hire substitutes (5 Similar) 4. North offered bounties of up to $300 but South didn’t offer bounties (5 Different)

17 4. Draft was unpopular 5. New York City Draft riots took place in 1863 for four days D.Economic Effects of the War 1. Both sides experienced economic hardships 2. Food shortages in South (6) 3. Inflation in South (6) 4. ST-War production fueled Northern industry and fueled Northern economy giving North an advantage (7) 5. LT-Industry replaced farming as basis for national economy(7) 6. Income tax laws 7. Issued greenbacks in North

18 Paper money called greenbacks, because of its green color, was printed by the U.S. government during the Civil War. The new currency helped the Northern economy by ensuring that people had money to spend. It also help the Union pay for the war.

19 New York City Draft Riots The New York City Draft Riots occurred from July 13-16, Most of the protesting came from overwhelmingly working class men, resentful because they believed the draft unfairly affected them while sparing wealthier men who could pay to exclude themselves from the war. Lincoln eventually had to bring in troops to end the violence.

20 E.Resistance by Slaves 1. Slaves slowed pace of work or stopped (8) 2. Sabotaged crops and farm equipment (8) 3. Waited for Union army to free them instead of going with planters (8) 4. Some rebelled or ran away 5. Many joined Union army (8) F. Women Aid War Effort 1. Plowed fields and ran farms (9) 2. Worked front lines as volunteers, nurses, washing clothes, gathering supplies, and cooking (9)

21 Famous Civil War Women Belle Boyd was a confederate spy who was arrested six times by the Union army. Clara Barton was trained as a teacher but worked as a nurse during the Civil War. After the war, she founded the American Red Cross. Dorothea Dix worked as a nurse during the war. By the end of the war, over 3000 nurses trained under her leadership.

22 G.Civil War Prison Camps 1. Extreme Conditions 2. North-24% of 12,121 prisoners died in Elmira, NY,during just one winter (10 North) 3. Andersonville, GA a. Housed 33,000 but built for 10,000 (10South) b. Little shelter from heat or cold (10 South) c. Slept in holes scratched in dirt (10 South) d. Drinking water came from creek that served as a sewer (10 South) e. 100 men a day died from starvation, disease, and exposure (10 South)

23 Andersonville, GA, Prison Camp

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25 Civil War prisoners suffered terrible hardships, but one of the worst was starvation. This soldier was found at Andersonville in Georgia, a Confederate prison camp.

26 CivilWar Economic ChangesSocial and Political Changes 1. Food shortages were very common in the South because food couldn’t get to the market as trains were used to carry war materials or were seized by the Union army. 2. Inflation increased prices 9,000% in the South but also caused higher prices in the North. 3. Industry began to replace farming as a basis of the national economy in the North because war production boosted Northern industry. 4. An income tax law was passed in Slaves began to rebel or refuse to work. 2. Many slaves fled plantation and joined the Union lines. 3. Women began doing jobs previously done by men. 4. Women served in the front lines as workers and nurses or as spies. 5. Nursing became a respectable profession. A.Categorizing As you read this section, take notes about the different economic, social, and political changes that the Civil War brought about in the United States.

27 Conditions at Civil War Prison Camps At Elmira, NY, prisoners from the South faced sickness and exposure to severe weather-24% died in one year. Anderson, GA, housed 33,000 Northerners but was built for only 10,000. Inmates had little shelter from heat or cold and slept in holes scratched in the dirt. Drinking water came from the same creek that served as a sewer. As many as 100 men died per day at Andersonville from starvation, disease, and exposure. As many as 50,000 men died in Civil War prison camps. People who saw the prison camps were shocked at the condition of the soldiers after they returned from the war. B. Summarizing As you read about Civil War prison camps, make a list of the conditions faced by prisoners in both the North and the South.

28 C. Analyzing Points of View On the back of this paper, briefly explain why many soldiers called the Civil War “a rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight.” In both the North and the South, it was possible for wealthy individuals to avoid war by paying for substitutes. By the end of the war, substitutes were costing up to $6000. The South had exemptions for slaveholders who owned 20 or more slaves that kept wealthy plantation owners from serving.

29 III.The North Wins A. Find Out 1. The Importance of the Battle of Gettysburg 2. The Importance of the Siege of Vicksburg and Sherman’s March to the Coast 3. The Virginia Campaign to Appomattox 4. The Surrender of Appomattox

30 B.The North Wins 1. September 1862–Battle of Antietam 2. McClellan didn’t finish Lee 3. Lincoln replaced McClellan with Burnside 4. December 1862–Battle of Fredericksburg 5. Burnside lost 12,600 men after attacking Confederates who had dug trenches 6. Gen. Hooker replaced Burnside with another Union disaster in May 1863 at Chancellorsville, VA 7. Jackson’s death costly for South 8. Lee decides to invade North again

31 Battle of Fredericksburg After Antietam McClellan took a defensive position in case Lee invaded the North again Lincoln ordered him to pursue Lee into Virginia and either battle the enemy or drive him south while roads were still good (Oct. 6) McClellan waited 24 days to obey orders Lincoln replaced McClellan on Nov. 5 with General Burnside Union-120,000 troops Confederates-80,000 After heaving fighting and over 12,000 casualties the Union retreated

32 General Ambrose Burnside replaced Gen. George B. McClellan on Nov. 5, 1862, as Commander of the Army of the Potomac even though he didn’t want the position. After a horrible defeat at Fredericksburg in December of 1862, Lincoln replaced him with Gen. Joseph Hooker. Burnside is known more for the term “sideburns” which was taken from his facial whiskers in the 19 th century known as “burnsides.”

33 Chancellorsville May 2-4, 1863, General Hooker crossed the Rappahannock River near Fredericksburg Took a strong defensive position near Chancellorsville, 10 miles west of Fredericksburg Lee attacked Hooker’s force Stonewall Jackson led the Confederates on a brilliant 15 miles flanking move on the Union right but was shot in the left arm that night by his own men Union forces were driven back over the next two days and retreated Considered Lee’s greatest victory

34 TJ (Stonewall) Jackson was mortally wounded by his own men following the first day of the Battle of Chancellorsville. Jackson passed through his own lines and was shot in the arm by Confederate soldiers who didn’t realize Jackson was passing through. Jackson had his left arm amputated but died of pneumonia several days later. General Lee said, “He has lost his left arm, I have lost my right arm.” Lee again decided to invade the North.

35 C.The Battle of Gettysburg 1. Lee crossed into Southern Penn. in June of Hoped to fuel Northern discontent with war (1) 3. Also hoped for European nations to recognize the Confederacy and aid them (1) 4. Shoe factory in Gettysburg (1) 5. July 1 forces collided 6. Three day battle 7. 90,000 Union troops under Gen. Meade 8. 75,000 Confederate under Lee 9. Turning point of battle was “Pickett’s Charge” with 13,000 men 10. North failed to finish Lee’s army again ,000 Union casualties; 28,000 Confed. 12. Lee retreats to Virginia

36 First Day

37 Second Day

38 Third Day In November of 1863, President Lincoln was asked to speak at a dedication for the first national cemetery in the nation’s history. His Gettysburg Address is one of the most famous speeches in US history, lasting only 2 minutes.

39 " Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us, that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion, that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain, that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."

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42 General George Pickett lead the Confederate charge from Seminary Ridge to the Union positions at Cemetery Ridge. Pickett took 13,000 men straight at the Union center across an open field. Union soldiers bombarded the Confederates with cannon and rifle fire. (2) “Pickett’s Charge” turned out to be the turning point of the battle and the war. Gen. Lee lost 1/3 of his men, crushing his hopes for a Confederate victory in the North. Lee was forced to retreat back to Virginia. (3)

43 D.The Siege of Vicksburg 1. July 4, 1863 (Day after Pickett’s Charge) 2. Last Confederate stronghold on Miss. R. 3. Began attacks in May 4. Settled for long siege by surrounding city and preventing supplies from getting in 5. Ate mules, dogs, and rats (4) 6. Surrendered after month and a half 7. Fulfilled big part of Anaconda Plan, giving North complete control of the Mississippi River (5) 8. Tide of war turned for North

44 The Siege of Vicksburg The Siege and Battle of Vicksburg lasted from May 18,1863 to July 4, The Union army had completely surrounded the city, causing the Confederates in the city to finally surrender as starvation set in.

45 E.Sherman’s Total War 1. General Grant promoted to commander of Union forces in March Pursue Lee in Virginia while Sherman pushed through deep South 3. Sherman took Atlanta in September Path of destruction to Savannah 60 miles wide and 300 miles long 5. Waged total war on South or war against everything that supports the enemy. His troops tore up railroad, destroyed crops, and burned and looted towns (6) 6. Lincoln was running for re-election and Sherman’s victories helped Lincoln win (7)

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47 Sherman’s March to the Sea General William Tecumseh Sherman waged total war on the South as he marched through Georgia in the fall of He destroyed anything that helped support the South’s war efforts during his campaign.

48 G.Grant’s Virginia Campaign 1. Sherman began to move north through Carolinas 2. Grant moved south toward Richmond to capture the Confederate capital (8) 3. Battle of the Wilderness in May 1864 Grant loses 17,000 men but fights on (9) 4. Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor in June Grant lost 7,000 (9) 5. June of 1864 Grant arrived at Petersburg to the south of Richmond (9) 6. Dug trenches and settled in for siege 7. Lee retreated from Richmond 8. Richmond captured on April 3, 1865

49 H.Surrender at Appomattax 1. Grant followed Lee from Richmond 2. Lee wanted to continue fighting but knew the situation was hopeless 3. April 9, 1865, Lee surrendered at a small Virginia town called Appomattox Courthouse (10) 4. Generous terms of surrender offered

50 On April 9,1865, General Lee surrendered to General Grant at the little Virginia town of Appomattox Courthouse. Generous terms of surrender were offered as Confederate soldiers were allowed to keep all of their personal possessions and a horse to use for the spring planting. (11) Grant also fed hungry soldiers and allowed them to return home. After 4 long years, the Civil War was finally over.

51 September 1862: McClellan stops Lee’s Forces at the Battle of Antietam A. Sequencing Events As you read this section, record the major events of the Civil War between Antietam and the surrender at Appomattox. December 1862: Confederate Troops dug trenches and defeated Union at Battle of Fredricksburg,VA – 12,600 Union casualties May 1863: Chancellorsville, VA. Confederate troops with ½ as many men as Union cuts Union into pieces. Stonewall Jackson shot by own men. July 2-4, 1863: Battle of Gettysburg raged for 3 days. North lost 23,000 men & South lost 28,000. July 4, 1863: Union captures Vicksburg March 1864: Grant named commander of Union forces May 1864: Battle of Wilderness June 13, 1864: Battle of Cold Harbor – 7,000 Union casualties September 1864: Sherman takes Atlanta December 1864: Sherman took Savannah, GA April 3, 1865: Union forces take Richmond April 9, 1865: Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House, VA.

52 B. Recognizing Effects Use the chart below to record the most important effects of the Union successes at Gettysburg and Vicksburg in July Union Successes at Gettysburg and Vicksburg Tide turns in favor of North Britain gives up thoughts of helping South 1/3 of Lee’s army killed or wounded Heavy Union casualties Lincoln found a general who would fight Anaconda Plan fulfilled

53 C. Making Inferences On the back of this paper, briefly explain how the following are related. William Tecumseh Sherman total war 1864 Reelection of Lincoln William Tecumseh Sherman was a Union general who waged total war in the deep South. Sherman’s success in the South, called Sherman’s March to the Sea, and his capture of Atlanta led directly to Lincoln winning the election of 1864 and being reelected to the presidency.

54 IV.The Legacy of the War A.Find Out 1. The economic, physical, and emotional costs of the Civil War 2. The significance of the Thirteenth Amendment 3. The events related to President Lincoln’s assassination 4. The consequences of the Civil War

55 B.Costs of the War 1. Lincoln wants to heal the nation’s wounds and bring the North and South back together. He offers generous terms of surrender. (1) ,000 soldiers died (2) a. 360,000 Union b. 260,000 Confederate 3. Number wounded (2) a. 275,000 Union b. 260,000 Confederate 4. 3,000,000 served in both armies-10% of population 5. Economic costs were severe with the North and the South spending 5 times the amount spent in the previous 8 decades (3)

56 C.The Thirteenth Amendment 1. Union soldiers had been freeing slaves on plantations 2. Slaves in border states not freed 3. Thirteenth Amendment passed Congress in January of Must be ratified by states 5. Finally ratified by December of Southern states voted for the Amendment

57 D.Lincoln’s Assassination 1. 5 days after Lee’s surrender on April 14, 1865 (4) 2. Went to see play “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. (4) 3. Shot in back of the head by John Wilkes Booth, a famous actor (4) 4. Secretary of State Seward stabbed 5. VP Johnson supposed to be killed 6. Booth captured and killed 7. Lincoln died the next morning on April 15, Stunned the nation and caused intense grief. The whole Country mourned. (5)

58 E.Consequences of the War 1. Changed how people viewed nation in the North (6) 2. Saw U.S. as a single nation instead of a collection of states (6) 3. Caused national government to expand and become more powerful 4. Established federal banking system, funded railroads, gave away Western land, and provided for state colleges

59 5. Northern economy changed 6. Industry began to replace farming (7 North) 7. Economic disaster in South 8. Farms and plantations destroyed (7 South) 9. Lost 40% of livestock (7 South) % of farm machinery wrecked (7 South) 11. Factories demolished (7 South) 12. Railroad tracks torn up (7 South) 13. Labor system abolished (7 South) 14. Economic effects lasted for decades

60 Other Challenges How would the South be brought back into the nation (8) How would 4 million former slaves be integrated into national life (8)

61 Northern SoldiersSouthern SoldiersAll Soldiers Killed 360,000260,000620,000 Wounded 275,000260,000535,000 A.Comparing and contrasting As you read this section, compare and contrast the human costs of the Civil War in the North and the South

62 Passage of the thirteenth Amendment Because the Emancipation Proclamation left many people enslaved, President Lincoln urged Congress to pass a Constitutional Amendment to end slavery entirely. By the end of 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment was ratified, and slavery was banned everywhere in the U.S. Assassination of President Lincoln Lincoln’s murder stunned the nation and caused intense grief. The loss of Lincoln’s vast experience and great political skills was a terrible setback for a people faced by a challenge of rebuilding the nation. B. Finding Main Ideas In the boxes below, write a short paragraph explaining the significance of each event

63 C. Drawing Conclusions On the back of this sheet of paper, briefly explain the economic consequences of the Civil War in the South


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