Presentation on theme: "NEXT The Civil War is won by the Union and strongly affects the nation. The Tide of War Turns, 1863–1865 Union soldiers sitting in front of a tent."— Presentation transcript:
NEXT The Civil War is won by the Union and strongly affects the nation. The Tide of War Turns, 1863–1865 Union soldiers sitting in front of a tent.
NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 The Emancipation Proclamation War Affects Society The North Wins The Legacy of the War The Tide of War Turns, 1863–1865
NEXT In 1863, President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, which helps to change the war’s course. Section 1 The Emancipation Proclamation
Calls for Emancipation NEXT 1 SECTION The Emancipation Proclamation President Lincoln does not feel he has power to abolish slavery Does not want to divide the nation further by freeing slaves Abolitionists, Frederick Douglass, urge Lincoln to emancipate slaves If freeing the slaves weakens the South, then Lincoln would do it
The Emancipation Proclamation NEXT 1 SECTION President Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863): - frees all slaves in Confederate territory Lincoln asks Congress to gradually abolish slavery throughout Union Frees southern slaves, weaken South, makes proclamation military action Proclamation makes Civil War a war of liberation Few slaves actually liberated because most live far from Union troops Image
Response to the Proclamation NEXT 1 SECTION Abolitionists are happy about Emancipation Proclamation Most Union soldiers welcome proclamation, it makes South weaker Some Northern Democrats afraid proclamation will anger South more Southerners outraged, many slaves begin to run away to Union lines: -deprives Confederacy of labor -provides Union with soldiers
African American Soldiers NEXT 1 SECTION Emancipation Proclamation lets African American men join Union army African American soldiers are often given worse jobs, less pay After emancipation, African Americans rush to join army Show great courage on the battlefield By war’s end, 180,000 black soldiers in Union army Image
The 54th Massachusetts NEXT 1 SECTION African American 54th Massachusetts Regiment 1st organized in North Heroics of 54th lead to increased African American enlistment Leads heroic attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina (July 1863) African American prisoners often shot or returned to slavery by South Image
NEXT Section 2 War Affects Society The Civil War causes social, economic, and political changes in the North and the South.
Disagreement About the War NEXT 2 SECTION Southerners grow weary of war, Confederate deserters increase Lincoln has protesters arrested, suspends writ of habeas corpus Copperheads—Northern Democrats that favor peace with South War Affects Society Image
The Draft Laws NEXT 2 SECTION North, South pass laws of conscription, also known as the draft: -require men to serve in military North offers bounties, cash payments, to men who volunteer to serve In South, North men can hire substitutes to serve in their place Anger over draft leads to New York City draft riots (July 1863)
Economic Effects of the War NEXT 2 SECTION Inflation—an increase in price and decrease in the value of money In North, inflation is less, war boosts industry In South, food shortage, inflation are common U.S. establishes the first income tax—a tax on earnings (1861) U.S. issues new paper money, greenbacks, which: -ensures people have money to spend -helps Union pay for the war Chart
Resistance by Slaves NEXT 2 SECTION To hurt Southern economy, slaves: -slow their work pace or stop altogether -sabotage crops and farm equipment -refuse to join fleeing planters Many enslaved people run away from plantations, join Union army
Women Aid the War Effort NEXT 2 SECTION Many women run farms, take over “men’s” work in factories, offices In North, Dorothea Dix is leader of about 3,000 nurses Work for soldier relief agencies and as nurses Women serve as spies, including: - Harriet Tubman for North - Belle Boyd for South Image
NEXT 2 SECTION In North, South prisoners of war face terrible conditions Camp at Andersonville, Georgia, is one of the worst in South Prison camp at Elmira, New York, is one of the worst in North Civil War Prison Camps Thousands of prisoners die of sickness, exposure Image
NEXT Section 3 The North Wins Thanks to victories, beginning with Gettysburg and ending with Richmond, the Union survives.
The Road to Gettysburg NEXT President Lincoln names Ambrose Burnside as commander of U.S. army 3 SECTION Burnside loses to Confederates at Battle of Fredericksburg (1862) Lincoln replaces Burnside with General Joseph Hooker The North Wins Hooker loses to Confederates at Chancellorsville, Virginia Confederate General “Stonewall” Jackson is killed at Chancellorsville General Lee decides to invade North again to: -fuel Northern discontent with war -gain European support
The Battle of Gettysburg NEXT 3 SECTION Union, Confederate forces fight 3 days, Battle of Gettysburg (1863) General Lee, Confederates retreat, Union army fails to pursue Confederate attack, known as Pickett’s Charge, fails Lee’s hopes for a Confederate victory in the North are crushed Interactive
The Siege of Vicksburg NEXT 3 SECTION General Grant, troops fight Confederates at Siege of Vicksburg Union has control of entire Mississippi River, South is split in two After a month and a half siege, Confederates surrender (July 1863) Britain gives up all thought of supporting the South Map
Sherman’s Total War NEXT 3 SECTION President Lincoln names General Grant commander of Union armies Captures Atlanta (September 1864), marches to sea, wages total war General William Tecumseh Sherman, Union troops push to Atlanta Union troops tear up rail lines, destroy crops, burn and loot towns Sherman’s success helps Lincoln win re-election Sherman captures Savannah (December 1864) Interactive
Grant’s Virginia Campaign NEXT 3 SECTION Grant’s army, Lee’s army fight series of battles in Virginia Grant’s army lays siege on Richmond, Virginia, for 10 months Despite high casualties, Grant’s army continues to advance General Lee, troops evacuate Richmond, Grant captures the city
Surrender at Appomattox NEXT 3 SECTION General Lee sends message, he is ready to surrender to General Grant Grant offers generous terms, Confederates can return home in peace Surrender arrangements made at Appomattox Court House (April 9, 1865) After four long years, the Civil War comes to a close Image
NEXT Section 4 The Legacy of the War The Civil War brings great changes and new challenges to the United States.
Costs of the War NEXT Many Northerners, Southerners have bitter feelings toward each other 4 SECTION President Lincoln hopes to heal the nation, bring North, South together The Legacy of the War Civil War, deadliest war in American history; has great economic costs Chart
The Thirteenth Amendment NEXT 4 SECTION Emancipation Proclamation only frees slaves in the Confederacy Thirteenth Amendment (1865) bans slavery in the entire U.S.
Lincoln’s Assassination NEXT 4 SECTION John Wilkes Booth shoots President Lincoln at Ford’s Theatre Lincoln dies morning after, (April 15, 1865), Seward recovers Booth’s accomplice stabs Secretary of State William Seward First American president to be assassinated Lincoln’s murder stuns the nation, causes intense grief U.S. troops kill Booth, capture his accomplices Image
Consequences of the War NEXT 4 SECTION U.S. is viewed as single country not collection of states The Civil War also causes: -national government to expand -national government to grow more powerful -new industries to grow rapidly -economic disaster in the South Chart
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