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M. Hamid - The Reluctant Fundamentalist

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1 M. Hamid - The Reluctant Fundamentalist
Chapter analysis: function and use of language

2 Aims and objectives Aim - students should be aware of the importance of: Knowledge and skills related to intercultural dialogue Language and learning awareness Project skills in multilingual and intercultural dimension Documentation in cultural exchange Effective communication in a multilingual context Semantic research in language learning Cultural features and stereotypes The way language makes meaning with respect on the previous Objectives – the students should be able to: Discuss the structure in principle of the novel Moshin Hamid, The Reluctant Fundamentalist, Reclams-Universal Blibliothek, number 19876, 2013 Philipp Reclam Jun Single out the main function of each chapter with reference to message Find out keywords and expression used to convey different linguistic and cultural perspectives Carry out relevant textual analysis with reference to structural elements of fiction (title, layout, structure, denotation, characters, setting, narrative strategy, use of language) Draw personal conclusions and argumentations supported by textual reference Relationship signifier-signify

3 Chapter 1 Function Topics Relevant words
To introduce the main characters: Changez and the American To introduce the setting of the novel: a cafè in Lahore To specify the narrative tecnique: drammatic monologue Topics Topic of allegory. Chagez and the American: a dialogue between Eastern and Western culture Topic of ambiguity: Changez and the American are not expressively characterized Relevant words Mission: it refers to the purpose of the American’s visit in Lahore Bearing: it refers to Changez’s prejudicial thought This is a dream come true: it refers to the idyllic vision of America That: it refers to the features Changez considers typical of the American people

4 Chapter 2 Function Topic Relevant words
To introduce the character Erica Topic Topic of allegory: Erica as a metaphor for the sentimental side of America; Underwood Samson as a metaphor for the financial and economic side of America Topic of love relationship: Erica and Changez Topic of the meeting: two different genders, religious faiths, social classes and culture meeting Topic of culturally marked metaphors Relevant words Regal and tiara: they refer to Erica’s cultural characterization Mr. Palomar: it refers to Changez’s attitude in observation

5 Chapter 3 Functions Topics: Relevant words
To explicate Changez’s role in American business: the Underwood Samson Topics: Topic of appurtenance: New York feels like home; Pakistan was a technologically advanced country that was not able to keep up with the US Topic of city comparison - Lahore and NY: high buildings, Pakistani people and shops among Americans Relevant words Urban: concept of urbanization in Lahore and New York Proud, power, efficiency, professionalism: they refer to America’s fundamentals of business Top Gun, The Great Gatby: it refers to the stereotyped view of America

6 Chapter 4 Function Topics Relevant words
To present the cultural comparison between Erica’s father and Changez Topics Topic of culture meeting: Changez and Ericas’ father; Easter and Western culture; comparison between Pakistani and American culture Topic of love relationship: the love relationship between Changez and Erica progresses Topic of prejudice: multilayered meaning of “fundamentalism” (alcohol and finance) Relevant words Fundamentalism: it refers to teh religious fundamentalism in Changez and Erica’s father discussion So of course he drinks: it refers to Erica’s father’s prejudice about Pakistani (and Muslims in general) people attitude toward alcohol Cosmopolitan: it refers to the cosmopolite nature of New York

7 Chapter 5 Function Topics Relevant words
To deepen Changez’s role in Underwood Samson To introduce Changez unpleasant feel towards American culture To develop Changez’s identity growth Topics Topic of war: the World Trade Centre attack Topic appartenance/cultural discrimination: the unpleasant sensation being observed as a possible terrorist Topic of cultural identity: Changez is ashamed of being considered American Topic of resentment toward USA: Changez smiles at the attack Relevant words Dreamier: it refers to the utopic view of America Foreign: it refers to Changez’s unpleasant sensation of being a Pakistani in New York Smiled: it refers to Changez’s pleased reaction to the attack Nostalgia: it refers to America’s attitude to look at the past with pride Grease: it refers to a glorious view of America's past

8 Chapter 6 Function Topics Relevant words
To exploit the sentiment of progressive estrangement between Erica/America and Changez Topics Topic of estrangement: Changez is not able to keep on going with his relationship with Erica/America and Underwood Samson Topic of patriotism: americans and flags, Topic of cultural identity: Changez grows his beard according to his newly found Muslim identity Topic of love relationship: Changez fails having sex with Erica, not being able to get in touch with her Relevant words The mightest civilization the world has ever known: it refers to American narcisism and egocentrism

9 Chapter 7 Function Topics Relevant words
To exploit the final breach of Changez’s attempt to rebuild a relationship with America Topics Lahore being bombed after the attack Topic of identity: Con his work and pretends to be the Newyorker he felt to be in the beginning. Jim encourages him to “focus on the fundamentals” Topic of identity: Changez pretends to be Chris in order to have sex with Erica: this stands for him trying to conform to the stereotypical American in order to accomplish pleasure Topic of religious faith: Changez feels closer and closer to the people who are attacked by the US Topic of fundamentalism: he watches Afghanistan being attacked and gets drunk, he gets late to work: failed both religious fundamentalism and financial fundamentalism Relevant words Focus on the fundamentals: it refers to Underwood Samson guiding principle Predatory: it refers to aggressive attitude he finds typical of American people

10 Chapter 8 Function Topics Relevant words
To present America’s reactions to the attack, in particular its tendency to look back Topics Topic of love relationship/past: Erica is focused totally on the past; Changez’s relationship with her comes to a dead end Topic of fundamentalism: Underwood Samson keeps following his route not caring of world sorrow Topic of racism: Changez responds violently to provocations Topic of travel: Changez uses his bonus days to go back visit his family in Lahore and gets angry about the situation in his home country Relevant words Nostalgia: it refers to the way America looks back to the past and connotes it Look back: it refers to America’s attitude to glorify the past and to take him always as an example Duty and Honor: it refers to the point of view of American people toward the attack and, in particular, they refer to the values which are intended to be ignored by terrorists and which are intended to be the most important for the American people

11 Chapter 9 Function: Topics Relevant words
To identify Changez’s final identity To explicate the incompatibility between his new identity and the American society Topics Topic of identity: revaluation of his homeland – Changez is not shaving anymore and now he really feels part of the Pakistani population Topic of incommunicability : both Changez and Erica/America can’t communicate, especially because of her choice of keeping far from him Relevant words Devout: it connotes Erica’s intention to look back Dead: it refers to Chris and to Erica’s incapability to accept it

12 Chapter 10 Function: Topics Relevant words
To clarify the sentiment Changez felt toward every kind of fundamentalism To exploit Changez’s inner struggle due to his love Topics Topic of contrast: the love for Erica is in contrast with his resentment toward America Topic of fundamentalism: Changez is not able to fully follow both religious and financial fundamentalism Relevant words Got things done: it refers to the way of thinking of Underwood Samson

13 Chapter 11 Function: Topics Relevant words:
To exploit the climax of Changez’s inner struggle: Changez leaves his job and finds out Erica has disappeared and possibly committed suicide Topics Topic of illness/death: Erica looks lacking of life and finally disappears, just as his relationship with America, which got worsen as soon as he refuses to conform to the western model Topic of fundamentalism: “my days of focusing on fundamentals were done” Relevant words: Lacking: it refers to lack of life in Erica’s eyes Fundamentals: it refers to economic fundamentals Changez decides not to follow anymore Solitude: it refers to the sensation Changez feels because of his origin

14 Chapter 12 Function Topics Relevant words
To give information about Changez’s experience as a lecturer in Lahore To underline the repressive attitude toward political and social progress in Middle East To conclude the novel Topics Topic of identity: the real identity of the American man is still mysterious Topic of ambiguity: the end of the novel is unclear and the reader can only imagine how the story really ends Relevant words Well wishers: it connotes the feature of the group Changez is ahead of Believe: it refers to his thought of having kind of an ordinary relationship with Erica

15 Key Word: Fundamentalism
The word Fundamentalism can convey different meanings and in particular throughout this novel, it gets far from the ordinary and more common one. Religious fundamentalism: strict adherence to ancient religious precepts and rules  not being able to evolve in religious belief/thogh Economic fundamentalism: strict adherence to the principles/basics of economy and finance  making money is the only measure of value Politic fundamentalism: use of religion for political purposes  the executive power is not separeted from the religious authority

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