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Presentation on theme: "Presentation Plus! Glencoe World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 Send all."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Presentation Plus! Glencoe World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio Welcome to Presentation Plus!

3 Splash Screen

4 Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1The Development of Civilizations in Africa Section 2Kingdoms and States of Africa Section 3African Society and Culture Chapter Summary Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

5 Intro 1 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

6 Intro 2 Key Events As you read this chapter, look for the key events in the history of the early African civilizations.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The continent’s immense size and distinct geographical and climatic zones influenced where civilizations developed and how they survived.  The introduction of Christianity and Islam affected the way civilizations developed and interacted.  The development of trade led to the exchange of goods and cultural ideas.

7 Intro 3 The Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The expansion of trade creates a global society, allowing people to exchange goods, services, and ideas throughout the world.  African art, music, and dance remain very influential today.

8 Intro 4 Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to:  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. describe how the mastery of farming gave rise to Africa’s first civilizations.  list the accomplishments of the West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.  describe important aspects of African society, such as government, the role of women, education, religion, and the arts.

9 End of Intro

10 Section 1-1 Africa’s four distinct climate zones affected the development of African civilizations.  Main Ideas Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Development of Civilizations in Africa Key Terms plateau  savanna The mastery of farming gave rise to the first civilizations in Africa: Egypt, Kush, and Axum. 

11 Section 1-2 Kushites  People to Identify Sahara  Places to Locate Kalahari Desert  Nubia  Ethiopia Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Development of Civilizations in Africa Great Rift Valley  Congo River  King Ezana 

12 Section 1-3 What were the main occupations of early Africans?  Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. How did the introduction of Christianity and Islam affect African states? The Development of Civilizations in Africa

13 Section 1-4 Preview of Events The Development of Civilizations in Africa

14 Section 1-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

15 Section 1-6 Meroitic, the language spoken by the Kush in Meroë, remains largely undeciphered. Only a small number of Meroitic words and a small portion of the grammar are known–and the relationship between Meroitic and other languages is a mystery.

16 Section 1-7 (pages 223–225) The Land of Africa and The Climate of Africa Africa is the second largest continent. (Asia is the largest.)  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. It stretches for almost five thousand miles and is surrounded by two seas and two oceans.

17 Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Land of Africa and The Climate of Africa (cont.) Africa has many geographical zones. It is mountainous along the Mediterranean coast, and just south lies the Sahara, Earth’s largest desert.  Southwest of this desert, grasslands and then tropical jungle cover the hump of Africa jutting into the Atlantic Ocean. (pages 223–225)

18 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Here also is the Great Rift Valley, where mountains rise above deep canyons and wild animals populate grasslands.  Farther south lies the dense vegetation of the Congo basin, through which the mighty Congo River runs.  Farther to the south, the rain forests fade into hills, plateaus, and then deserts. To the east lie snowcapped mountains, upland plateaus, and lakes.  The Land of Africa and The Climate of Africa (cont.) (pages 223–225)

19 Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The mild climate–moderate rainfall and mild temperatures–of the northern coast and southern tip creates fertile land and abundant crops.  The Sahara in the continent’s north and the Kalahari, a desert in the south, cover 40 percent of Africa. Africa has four distinct climate zones, each with a different way of life.  The Land of Africa and The Climate of Africa (cont.) (pages 223–225)

20 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Heavy rains and heat make for dense forests and disease-carrying insects, such as the tsetse fly, which carries sleeping sickness.  To help keep the tsetse fly away, people in the area do not raise animals.  Farming and travel is minimal in these dense forests. A third climate zone is the rain forest along the equator, about 10 percent of the continent.  The Land of Africa and The Climate of Africa (cont.) (pages 223–225)

21 Section 1-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. These are broad grasslands dotted with shrubs and small trees.  North and south of the rain forests, the savannas cover about 40 percent of Africa.  Rainfall allows for farming and animal herding, though the rain is unreliable. A final climate zone is the savannas.  The Land of Africa and The Climate of Africa (cont.) (pages 223–225)

22 Section 1-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How does the geography of Africa compare to the geography of the United States? Both have a diverse geography. Each has great rivers, and the American prairie is comparable to the African grasslands. Africa, however, has much more coastline, desert, and jungle, though there are rain forests in Hawaii and Washington. The Land of Africa and The Climate of Africa (cont.) (pages 223–225)

23 Section 1-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 225–226) Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam About seven or eight thousand years ago, the mastery of farming gave rise to the first civilizations in Africa: Egypt, Kush, and Axum.  A busy trade in ivory, ebony, frankincense, and leopard skins between Egypt and Nubia to its south developed by 2000 B.C.  Around 1000 B.C., Nubia freed itself from Egyptian control and became the independent state of Kush.

24 Section 1-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) The Kushites returned to their original lands. In 750 B.C., the Kushites conquered Egypt, but the Assyrians, whose iron weapons overmatched the bronze and stone of the Kushites, drove them out of Egypt.  (pages 225–226)

25 Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Its center was the city of Meroë, located on a new trade route.  The city had a large supply of iron, and the Kushites began making iron weapons and tools. The Kush economy was first based on farming, but soon Kush became a major trading state.  Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) (pages 225–226)

26 Section 1-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. It provided iron, ivory, gold, ebony, and slaves to the Roman Empire, Arabia, and India in return for such luxury goods as jewelry and silver lamps. Kush was a major trading empire for several hundred years.  Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) (pages 225–226)

27 Section 1-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Then a new power, Axum, caused its decline.  Axum was founded by a colony of Arabs in what is now Ethiopia.  It became an independent state that combined Arab and African cultures. Kush flourished from 250 B.C. to A.D  Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) (pages 225–226)

28 Section 1-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. It exported ivory, myrrh, and slaves and imported textiles, metal goods, wine, and olive oil.  For a time, Axum and Kush competed for control of the ivory trade.  In the fourth century A.D., King Ezana of Axum conquered Kush. Axum prospered because it was located on the Red Sea and the trading route between India and the Mediterranean.  Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) (pages 225–226)

29 Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. About A.D. 330, King Ezana converted to Christianity, and he made it the official religion of Axum.  Shipwrecked Syrians had introduced Christianity to Axum.  Within a few centuries, Islam brought important challenges to the kingdom of Axum. Axumite civilization’s most distinctive feature was its religion.  Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) (pages 225–226)

30 Section 1-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By the early eighth century, the entire coastal region of North Africa to the Strait of Gibraltar was under Arab rule  By the eighth century, a number of Muslim trading states had been established on the African coast of the Red Sea.  For centuries the relations between Christian Axum and the Muslim states were fairly peaceful. In 641, Arab forces took control of Egypt.  Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) (pages 225–226)

31 Section 1-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The coastal Muslim states moved inland to wrest control of the slave and ivory trades from Axum.  Axum fought back.  By the early fifteenth century, Axum and the Muslim state of Adal were in a growing conflict. In the twelfth century, problems arose.  Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) (pages 225–226)

32 Section 1-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Within a few hundred years of its beginning, Islam spread through much of the northern half of Africa. In what area of the world did Christianity spread after the fifteenth century? Christianity spread through the Americas due to conquest, trade, and colonization. Emerging Civilization and the Rise of Islam (cont.) (pages 225–226)

33 Section 1-24 __ 1.broad grassland dotted with small trees and shrubs __ 2.a relatively high, flat land area A.plateau B.savanna Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. B A Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

34 Section 1-25 Explain the significance of Christianity in the history of Axum. Checking for Understanding Axum’s religion, Christianity, was its most distinctive feature. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

35 Section 1-26 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List Axum’s exports. What product led to King Ezana’s decision to invade Kush? Ivory, frankincense, myrrh, and slaves were Axum’s exports. Ivory led to King Ezana’s decision to invade Kush.

36 Section 1-27 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyze Why did the kingdom of Kush decline? Axum competed with Kush for control of the ivory trade. Eventually, Axum invaded and conquered Kush.

37 Section 1-28 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Compare the stele on page 226 of your textbook with those pictured on pages 44 and 86. What are the similarities and differences? Possible answer: There is a resemblance to Egyptian pyramids as well as modern grave markers and tombstones.

38 Section 1-30 Close Review and summarize some of the economic and religious changes in Africa exemplified by the Kush and Axum states.

39 End of Section 1

40 Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Kingdoms and States of Africa The expansion of trade led to migration and the growth of new kingdoms.  Main Ideas Key Terms Bantu  Swahili  stateless society Rulers introduced different forms of government.  subsistence farming 

41 Section 2-2 Kingdoms and States of Africa Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Berbers  People to Identify Sunni Ali  Muhammad Ture  Ibn Battuta  Ghana  Places to Locate Mombasa  Kilwa  Zambezi River  Zimbabwe Mali  Timbuktu  Morocco  Mogadishu  Sundiata Keita  Mansa Musa 

42 Section 2-3 What were the accomplishments of the West African kingdoms?  Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Kingdoms and States of Africa How did Islam impact East Africa?

43 Section 2-4 Preview of Events Kingdoms and States of Africa

44 Section 2-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

45 Section 2-6 Mansa Musa, the Islamic ruler of Mali, was accompanied on his pilgrimage to Makkah by a caravan consisting of 60,000 men and a baggage train of 80 camels, each carrying 300 pounds of gold.

46 Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 228–230) The Kingdom of Ghana As early as A.D. 500, Ghana–the first of the great West African trading states– emerged in the Niger River valley grasslands between the Sahara and the tropical forest along the coast.  Most of the people were farmers who lived in villages that together formed the kingdom of Ghana.  Modern Ghana is east of this area.

47 Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.) The kings of Ghana were strong, wealthy rulers who ruled without benefit of law.  For public appearances such as holding audiences and hearing grievances, the kings appeared amid great pomp in resplendent robes, gold jewelry, and turbans trimmed with gold.  To protect their kingdom and enforce their dictates, the Ghanaian kings had a well- trained army of thousands of soldiers. (pages 228–230)

48 Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Ghana prospered from its iron and gold supplies.  The blacksmiths of Ghana were highly prized because they were skilled at making iron tools and weapons.  The center of Ghana was near one of the biggest gold-producing areas in all of Africa.  This location made Ghana the hub of a huge trade empire. The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.) (pages 228–230)

49 Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In exchange for gold and iron products, Muslim merchants brought textiles, horses, metal goods, and salt.  Salt was important for preserving and spicing food.  Also, people needed salt to replace the salt their bodies lost in the hot climate.  Eventually, Ghana also exported ivory, ostrich feathers, hides, and slaves. The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.) (pages 228–230)

50 Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Exchanging goods in Ghana was done by silent trade.  At a boundary line no foreigner was permitted to pass, foreign merchants would place their wares and then leave.  The Ghanaians would then come and leave a quantity of gold for the goods.  If, on returning, the traders liked the amount of gold, they would take it and leave. The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.) (pages 228–230)

51 Section 2-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. If not, they would go away, and the Ghanaians would come back and leave more gold.  In this way the parties worked out a mutually agreeable exchange. The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.) (pages 228–230)

52 Section 2-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Berbers, a nomadic people whose camel caravans were called the “fleets of the desert,” carried much of the trade across the desert.  Camels needed little food for days and could survive by drinking large quantities of water infrequently.  The caravans took 40 to 60 days to reach their destinations.  Typically, up to a hundred camels traveled at about three miles an hour. The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.) (pages 228–230)

53 Section 2-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The merchants of Ghana traded such tropical items as bananas and palm oil.  They often became wealthy, and the kings prospered from this trade by imposing taxes on imports and exports.  Muslim merchants often acted as middlemen between the local traders and the Berbers. The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.) (pages 228–230)

54 Section 2-15 Sometimes salt was used as money in Africa. What English word preserves this connection between salt and money? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. The word is salary. The root of the word, sal, is Latin for salt. At one time salt was part of the pay of Roman soldiers. Salt was valuable in the Roman Empire, and the soldiers needed the salt on long, hot marches. The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.) (pages 228–230)

55 Section 2-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 230–231) The kingdom of Ghana, weakened by wars, collapsed during the 1100s.  The Kingdom of Mali The greatest trading state that arose in its place was Mali, which Sundiata Keita established in the mid-thirteenth century.

56 Section 2-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Kingdom of Mali (cont.) Sundiata (the name means “lion prince”) captured the Ghanaian capital in  He united the people of Mali and created a strong government.  Extending from the Atlantic coast to the trading center of Timbuktu, Mali built its wealth and power on the gold and salt trade.  Most of the people were farmers, however, who grew sorghum, millet, and rice. (pages 230–231)

57 Section 2-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The farmers lived in villages with local rulers.  These religious and administrative leaders sent tax revenues to the king. The Kingdom of Mali (cont.) (pages 230–231)

58 Section 2-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. One of Mali’s richest and most powerful kings was Mansa Musa. He ruled from 1312 to  He doubled Mali’s size.  He created a strong government with local governors whom he appointed.  His pilgrimage to Makkah is legendary.  Everywhere he went, he gave gold gifts to his hosts and purchased from merchants with gold.  He put so much gold into circulation so quickly that its value fell. The Kingdom of Mali (cont.) (pages 230–231)

59 Section 2-20 This pilgrimage left an impression of Mansa Musa as a great ruler of a powerful kingdom.  Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. He left another legacy. Earlier rulers of Mali had converted to Islam, but Mansa Musa ordered that mosques be built and encouraged the study of the Quran.  He brought in Islamic architects.  The most famous mosque is the Sankore mosque in Timbuktu, which also became a center of learning.  He imported scholars and books to spread the word of Allah. The Kingdom of Mali (cont.) (pages 230–231)

60 Section 2-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Mansa Musa was Mali’s last powerful leader.  By 1359, civil war divided Mali. The Kingdom of Mali (cont.) (pages 230–231)

61 Section 2-22 Why would increasing the gold supply dramatically make its value fall? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. When an economic product is scarce, such as gold or diamonds, its value increases. If there is a surplus of a product, its value declines. The Kingdom of Mali (cont.) (pages 230–231)

62 Section 2-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 231) Like Egypt’s Nile River, West Africa’s Niger River floods annually and leaves rich soil for farming and raising cattle.  The Kingdom of Songhai Southeast of Timbuktu, the Songhai people established themselves along the Niger.

63 Section 2-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Kingdom of Songhai (cont.) In 1009, a ruler named Kossi converted to Islam and established the Dia dynasty.  Prosperity ensued with the city of Gao as the chief trade center of Songhai.  Songhai expanded under the leadership of Sunni Ali, who created the Sunni dynasty in (page 231)

64 Section 2-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Sunni Ali spent most of his time on military campaigns.  His conquests of the cities of Timbuktu and Jenne were especially important because they gave Songhai control of the trading empire that had made Ghana and Mali prosper. The Kingdom of Songhai (cont.) (page 231)

65 Section 2-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Songhai Empire reached its height under Muhammad Ture.  A devout Muslim, he overthrew Sunni Ali’s son in 1493 and created the Askia (“usurper”) dynasty.  He created an empire that stretched a thousand miles along the Niger River.  He also created a strong central government with local provinces.  The Songhai cities prospered as never before. The Kingdom of Songhai (cont.) (page 231)

66 Section 2-27 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Songhai Empire came to an end after Muhammad Ture’s death.  Near the end of the sixteenth century, forces from Morocco occupied much of Songhai.  As one observer noted, conditions changed.  “Danger took the place of security, poverty of wealth, and distress and violence of peace.”  Songhai became a remnant of its former self. The Kingdom of Songhai (cont.) (page 231)

67 Section 2-28 Gold has always been highly prized. Why? The Kingdom of Songhai (cont.) (page 231)

68 Section 2-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 232–234) Various small states and societies took root in eastern Africa.  Societies in East Africa Islam strongly influenced many of them.  They lived by hunting and gathering, and raising livestock.  New peoples migrated into eastern Africa from the west beginning in the first millennium B.C.  Farming peoples who spoke dialects of the Bantu languages moved into East Africa and the Congo River basin, not as conquerors but as communities.

69 Section 2-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Societies in East Africa (cont.) These people practiced subsistence farming using iron and stone tools.  Subsistence farming is growing just enough crops for personal use, not for sale.  They grew grains, yams, melons, and beans.  Women tilled the fields and cared for the children, and men tended the herds, hunted, and traded locally.  They traded salt, animal products, copper, and iron ore. (pages 232–234)

70 Section 2-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The growth of Islam in the seventh and eighth centuries A.D. brought increased trade to the trading communities along the eastern coast.  Arab and Persian traders settled in ports along the Indian Ocean.  Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa were three of the most important ports. Societies in East Africa (cont.) (pages 232–234)

71 Section 2-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Kilwa was a magnificent city of its day.  In the fourteenth century, two monumental buildings were constructed in Kilwa of coral from the cliffs along the shore: the Great Mosque and the Husuni Kubwa palace.  The latter was on top of the cliffs and had over a hundred rooms.  The wealthy built houses near these two buildings and adorned them with Chinese porcelain and indoor plumbing. Societies in East Africa (cont.) (pages 232–234)

72 Section 2-33 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Arab traveler Ibn Battuta called Kilwa “one of the most beautiful towns in the world.”  The Portuguese sacked Kilwa in 1505 and destroyed its major buildings. Societies in East Africa (cont.) (pages 232–234)

73 Section 2-34 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. A mixed African-Arabian culture eventually known as Swahili emerged throughout the coastal area.  Members of the ruling groups often intermarried, and Islam and Islamic culture blended with the African cultures.  The term Swahili (“peoples of the coast”) was also applied to the area’s major language.  It is the national language today of Kenya and Tanzania. Societies in East Africa (cont.) (pages 232–234)

74 Section 2-35 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What was the chief mechanism of Islam’s spread through eastern Africa? The chief mechanism was trading. Societies in East Africa (cont.) (pages 232–234)

75 Section 2-36 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (page 234) States formed more slowly in the southern half of Africa.  States and Stateless Societies in South Africa There people lived in stateless societies–groups of independent villages organized by clans and led by a local ruler or clan head.  In the eleventh century A.D., some of these independent villages began to consolidate, forming the first states.

76 Section 2-37 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. States and Stateless Societies in South Africa (cont.) From 1300 to 1450, the wealthiest and most powerful state was Zimbabwe.  It prospered from trading gold with Swahili communities.  The ruins of its capital, Great Zimbabwe, show the kingdom’s power. It overlooks the Zambezi River.  The Great Enclosure, whose exact purpose is not known, dominated the capital. (page 234)

77 Section 2-38 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. It was an oval space surrounded by a massive wall 17 feet thick, 32 feet high, and 800 feet long.  Smaller, walled enclosures built with a mudlike cement on stone foundations were nearby, and the royal palace was built in the valley below.  A high, stone wall also surrounded the palace. States and Stateless Societies in South Africa (cont.) (page 234)

78 Section 2-39 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The walls of Great Zimbabwe are unusual.  People stacked granite blocks to build the walls. They did not use mortar.  The city was abandoned by the fifteenth century, however, possibly because the land had been overgrazed or because of a natural disaster. States and Stateless Societies in South Africa (cont.) (page 234)

79 Section 2-40 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What could have been the purpose of the Great Enclosure? Possible answers: Religious ceremonies, government business and state ceremonies, or games might have been the reason for the Great Enclosure. States and Stateless Societies in South Africa (cont.) (page 234)

80 Section 2-41 __ 1.a mixed African-Arabic culture that developed along the east coast of Africa; also, the major language used in that area, combining Bantu with Arabic words and phrases __ 2.a group of independent villages organized into clans and led by a local ruler or clan head without any central government __ 3.a family of languages spoken in central and southern Africa; a member of any group of the African peoples who speak that language __ 4.the practice of growing just enough crops for personal use, not for sale A.Bantu B.subsistence farming C.Swahili D.stateless society Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. C D A B Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

81 Section 2-42 Explain the relationship between the king of Mali and his local governors. Checking for Understanding The king appointed the governors. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

82 Section 2-43 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. List Sunni Ali’s conquests that gave the Songhai control of the trading empire. Sunni Ali’s conquests of Timbuktu and Jenne gave the Songhai control of the trading empire.

83 Section 2-44 Critical Thinking Describe How did the religion of Islam spread throughout Africa during the period discussed in this section? The religion of Islam spread through trading, the building of mosques, and a blending of African-Arabian cultures. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

84 Section 2-45 Examine the figure on page 228 of your textbook. What is distinctive about this figure? What might the artist be attempting to convey? Analyzing Visuals Possible answer: The face is looking up; the figure may be in an act of worship. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

85 Section 2-46 Close Discuss the impact of powerful personalities such as Sundiata Keita, Mansa Musa, Sunni Ali, and Muhammad Ture on society, culture, and on the history of the region in which they lived.

86 End of Section 2

87 Section 3-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. African Society and Culture Extended family units formed the basis of African villages.  Main Ideas Key Terms lineage group  diviner  griot The arts were important in early African culture.  matrilineal  patrilineal 

88 Section 3-2 Yoruba  People to Identify Nigeria  Places to Locate African Society and Culture Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Ife  Benin Ashanti 

89 Section 3-3 How were ancestors and family important to early Africans?  Preview Questions Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. African Society and Culture What roles did storytelling and music play in African culture?

90 Section 3-4 Preview of Events African Society and Culture

91 Section 3-5 Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

92 Section 3-6 Slaves brought African religious practices that still exist to the Americas. In Brazil, for example, a religion called Candomblé thrives. It mixes Yoruba, Bantu, and Fon influences. Brazil has thousands of practicing centers of Candomblé. The guardians and leaders of this religious tradition are usually black women.

93 Section 3-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 236–238) African towns often began as fortified walled villages and grew into larger communities.  Aspects of African Society They became the centers of government and an economic life organized around the marketplace.  Artisans skilled in metalworking, woodworking, and pottery making lived in them, as did farmers who worked the neighboring fields.

94 Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Aspects of African Society (cont.) The relationship between African kings and subjects was beneficial to both.  The gulf between ruler and subject was not great.  Kings often held audiences to hear the people’s complaints.  Merchants received favors from the king, and merchants paid the king taxes.  To help trade, the kings tried to maintain law and order. (pages 236–238)

95 Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The sense of identity for most people was determined by their membership in an extended family and a lineage group.  Extended families lived in small, round dwellings of packed mud topped with a thatched roof. Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

96 Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Extended families were combined into lineage groups, the basic building blocks of African society.  All members claimed descent from a common ancestor.  Elders held much power over members of the group.  Members of extended families and lineage groups were expected to care for and support each other. Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

97 Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Women were subordinate to men.  They often worked in the fields, but some became merchants.  There were important differences between the role of women in Africa and elsewhere.  Many African societies were matrilineal (descent was traced through the mother), not patrilineal (descent traced through the father).  Women often could inherit property, and the husband often moved into his wife’s house. Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

98 Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. African villages typically had a process for educating young people and preparing them for adult participation in the community.  For example, by the fifteenth century in the Congo, up to age six boys and girls learned language, family history, and the songs that gave meaning to their lives from their mothers.  Then boys were sent to the “house of the men” and girls to the “house of the women.” Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

99 Section 3-13 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Fathers then taught the boys to hunt and fish, grow plants, and clear the fields.  Mothers taught girls how to care for a house and tend the fields.  Girls also learned how to be good wives and mothers.  Marriage and motherhood were their entrance into the community.  At puberty young people entered the community fully. Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

100 Section 3-14 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. This change was marked by an initiation ceremony.  The young people were isolated from the community and underwent a ritual ceremony in which they symbolically died and were reborn. Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

101 Section 3-15 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Slavery had been practiced in Africa since ancient times.  Slaves were used for forced labor or were sold.  Slaves were captives, debtors, war prisoners, and some criminals.  They were not necessarily seen as inferior.  They could be trusted servants and respected for their talents and skills.  Even so, life was hard with long hours of hard toil for most slaves. Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

102 Section 3-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Domestic slaves had the easiest life.  Slaves in Muslim societies were able to win their freedom more easily than in other kinds of societies. Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

103 Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Many cultures have initiations or rites of passage to signal when young people become full, adult participants in the community. Are there such rites for American young people? Possible answer: Rites of passage in the United States may include getting a driver’s license, graduating from high school, or getting married. Aspects of African Society (cont.) (pages 236–238)

104 Section 3-18 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 238–240) African religions shared a belief in a single creator god.  The Yoruba peoples in Nigeria, for example, believed that their chief god sent his son Oduduwa from Heaven in a canoe to create the first humans.  Many slaves transported to America practiced the Yoruba religion. Religious Beliefs in Africa

105 Section 3-19 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) Sometimes a group of lesser gods joined the creator god.  The Ashanti people of Ghana believed in a supreme being named Nyame, whose sons were the lesser gods.  Each son had a different purpose; one was the rainmaker, for example, and another brought the sun.  Ashanti gods could not always be trusted, so people had to appease them to avoid their anger. (pages 238–240)

106 Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Some people believed that the creator god originally lived on Earth but left out of disgust at human behavior.  The creator god was also merciful and could be pacified by proper behavior. Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) (pages 238–240)

107 Section 3-21 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Rituals were one way to communicate with the gods.  A special class of diviners usually performed the rituals.  Diviners believe they have the power to tell the future by working with supernatural forces.  They were used to protect the interests of the ruler, his subjects, and the community. Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) (pages 238–240)

108 Section 3-22 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Ancestors were important in African religion.  Rituals dedicated to ancestors were also important because it was believed ancestors could influence the lives of their descendants for good or evil by being closer to the gods. Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) (pages 238–240)

109 Section 3-23 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Many African religions believed in an afterlife.  Human life consisted of two stages: life on Earth and an afterlife in which the soul floated in the atmosphere for eternity.  Ancestral souls lived in the afterlife as long as the lineage group performed ceremonies in their names. Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) (pages 238–240)

110 Section 3-24 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Due to trade, Islam influenced African spiritual life.  At first only individuals converted, and rulers did not stop the practice.  Some rulers then converted, beginning with the royal family of Gao at the end of the tenth century.  By the end of the fifteenth century, much of the population in the grasslands south of the Sahara had joined those in North Africa in accepting Islam. Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) (pages 238–240)

111 Section 3-25 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Christianity was more successful in making converts in the mountains of Ethiopia.  Islam did not win many converts in East Africa until many members of the Swahili upper class converted in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) (pages 238–240)

112 Section 3-26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Islam and African native religions could conflict.  Islam, for example, rejected spirit worship.  Islam’s distinct roles for men and women did not fit with the more informal customs of the African cultures. Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) (pages 238–240)

113 Section 3-27 Both Chinese and many African cultures stress ancestor worship. Why? Religious Beliefs in Africa (cont.) (pages 238–240)

114 Section 3-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 240–241) As in most places at the time, early African arts served religion.  African Culture The earliest African art form was rock painting.  The most famous examples, dating back to 4000 B.C., are in the Tassili Mountains of the central Sahara.  They show the life of the people as it changed from hunting to herding to trading.

115 Section 3-28 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. African Culture (cont.) Wood carvers throughout Africa made amazing masks and statues, often representing gods, spirits, or ancestral figures.  The objects were believed to embody their subjects’ spiritual powers.  The Nok culture of Nigeria is the oldest known culture in West Africa to have made sculpture.  Impressive terra-cotta human figures and heads are believed to have had religious significance. (pages 240–241)

116 Section 3-29 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, metal workers at Ife, capital of the Yoruba and now in southern Nigeria, produced bronze and iron statues.  These may have influenced artists in Benin in West Africa.  The Benin bronze sculptures of kings’ heads, figures, and animals are rivaled only by the Chinese sculptures of the time. African Culture (cont.) (pages 240–241)

117 Section 3-30 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. African music and dance served a religious purpose.  Dancing was a means of communicating with the spirits.  Dance movements represented spirits expressing themselves through humans.  The strong rhythmic pattern and call and response of African music and dance influenced modern Western music.  Spirituals and work songs developed into blues, gospel, jazz, ragtime, and rock and roll. African Culture (cont.) (pages 240–241)

118 Section 3-31 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. African music was used to pass on to the young information about the history of the community, folk legends, and religious traditions.  Storytelling, usually by priests or griots, served the same purpose.  Oral tradition worked in the absence of written language. African Culture (cont.) (pages 240–241)

119 Section 3-32 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Are cultural information, history, and values passed on orally in the United States? Yes, television and movies are in part oral media, though they use visuals more than ancient oral traditions. African Culture (cont.) (pages 240–241)

120 Section 3-33 __ 1.a person who is believed to have the power to foretell events __ 2.a special class of African storytellers who help keep alive a people’s history __ 3.an extended family unit that has combined into a larger community __ 4.tracing lineage through the mother rather than the father __ 5.tracing lineage through the father A.lineage group B.matrilineal C.patrilineal D.diviner E.griot Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. D E A B C Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers.

121 Section 3-34 Discuss the arts that were developed by the Nok, the Yoruba, and the Benin peoples. What do these works say about the cultures in which they were created? Checking for Understanding These groups developed terra-cotta human figures, bronze and iron statues, impressive bronze sculptures, rivaled only by the sculptures of the Chinese. These achievements were made possible because not all people were needed for food production. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

122 Section 3-35 Checking for Understanding Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe the practical consequences of Africa’s matrilineal society. Is your society matrilineal or patrilineal? Do you have an opinion as to why one type of society might be better or worse to live in than the other? It produced strong women who were expected to keep the family together.

123 Section 3-36 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify Opinions Explain how art, music, and dance formed an integral part of African society. Explain why you think these subjects should or should not be part of every school’s curriculum. Since there was no written language, African art served religious purposes and passed on the social history of the community.

124 Section 3-37 Analyzing Visuals Identify all the tasks being performed in the village scene in the stone panel on page 239 of your textbook. Are comparable tasks performed by individuals in your family? In your opinion, what was the artist’s attitude toward work? Explain your answer.

125 Section 3-38 Close Name the accomplishments of early Africans that you believe were the most remarkable. Explain your answers.

126 End of Section 3

127 Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary African civilizations did not develop in a vacuum. As far back as the ancient Egyptians, African civilizations were open to contact with outside groups. Contact came about either through trade, migration, or war, and led to the introduction of new ideas, new ways of living, and the development of multicultural societies. The chart on the following slide lists major concepts associated with cultural diffusion and contact.

128 Chapter Summary Chapter Summary 2

129 End of Chapter Summary

130 Chapter Assessment 1 1._________________ occurs when farmers only grow enough crops for their personal use. 2.Farming peoples who spoke dialects of the _________________ family of languages migrated into East Africa and the Congo Basin. 3.Broad grasslands dotted with trees and shrubs are called _________________. 4.A _________________ society traces its descent through the mother. 5. _________________ are people who communicate with the gods and possess the power to foretell the future. Insert the key term that best completes each of the following sentences. Using Key Terms Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Subsistence farming Bantu savannas matrilineal Diviners

131 Chapter Assessment 2 Science and Technology Why do people who live in the rain forest not keep cattle or animals? Reviewing Key Facts They do not keep cattle or animals in order to avoid the tsetse fly, a disease- carrying insect that infects humans and animals with sleeping sickness. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

132 Chapter Assessment 3 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. History Name the major trading states of Africa south of the Sahara. Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were the major trading states of Africa south of the Sahara.

133 Chapter Assessment 4 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Culture What was a distinctive feature of the kings of Ghana as noticed by outside observers? Distinctive features included strong, active leadership and great wealth.

134 Chapter Assessment 5 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Citizenship What caused the decline of Mali? Civil war caused the decline of Mali.

135 Chapter Assessment 6 Reviewing Key Facts Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Geography Identify two different trade routes across Africa. In eastern Africa, there was a trade route across the desert that crossed the Nile at Meroe in Kush. In western Africa, trade routes ran from northern Africa across the Sahara to Ghana, then Mali, and then Songhai.

136 Chapter Assessment 7 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Evaluating Explain the reasons for the devaluation of gold during the reign of Mansa Musa. Gold lost its value because there was too much available. When an item is in large supply it is not as valuable. When there is a shortage, the item is worth more.

137 Chapter Assessment 8 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Compare the growth of Islam with the expansion of trade between Africa and its Arab neighbors. As Africans and Arabs exchanged goods, they also learned about each other’s cultures. The Arab culture became part of Africans’ lives. The religion of Islam was central to Arab culture, and it spread along the same paths as Arab trade routes. Mansa Musa’s journey to Makkah further spread Islam throughout his kingdom.

138 Chapter Assessment 9 Analyzing Maps and Charts Study the map below and answer the questions on the following slides.

139 Chapter Assessment 10 The great trade empires of West Africa grew out of the various vegetation zones and the products they produced. For example, yams were better suited to one area, grazing animals to another. How would these differences account for growth in trade? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts

140 Chapter Assessment 11 People traded for things they desired but could not produce. Analyzing Maps and Charts

141 Chapter Assessment 12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Maps and Charts In what zone was palm oil produced? Palm oil was produced in the wooded zone and lowland forest.

142 Chapter Assessment 13 Analyzing Maps and Charts Which zone produced the fewest number of different products? Where were most agricultural products grown? The desert produced the fewest number of products. Most agricultural products were grown in the wooded zone and lowland rain forest. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

143 Chapter Assessment 14 Analyzing Maps and Charts In what zones were animals most plentiful? What geographical features allowed animals to thrive there? Animals were plentiful in the savanna, wooded grassland, and semi-desert. They thrived in these zones because of the water and food supply. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

144 Chapter Assessment 15 Muhammad Ture expanded his empire. By 1493, it extended one thousand miles along the banks of the Niger River. Which kingdom did he rule? AKush BZimbabwe CBantu DSonghai Test-Taking Tip Notice the clues in this question before you make an answer choice. Ask yourself what part of Africa and what century the question describes. Use these hints to eliminate incorrect answer choices. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Standardized Test Practice

145 End of Chapter Assessment

146 World History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Glencoe World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

147 CC 2 Language Arts Art Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.

148 CC 2a Language Arts Research the structure of the Swahili language and teach the class several Swahili words and expressions.

149 CC 2b Art Draw, paint, or create a mural depicting the village of Taghaza as Ibn Battuta describes it.

150 CC 3 Art Research the sculpture of the Nok, Yoruba, or Benin peoples. You might explain, for example, how most Benin art was made to glorify the ruler, called the oba, who was believed to be divine.

151 WWWW 2 contents The Silent Trade Sundiata Keita Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.

152 WWWW 2a The Silent Trade The trade exchange known as “silent trade” has been described by various writers, including Herodotus, as the method often used by people who have no common language.

153 WWWW 2b Sundiata Keita Why would Sundiata Keita, who might be called “ the George Washington of Mali,” might also be called “the Franklin Roosevelt of Mali”?

154 TP 2 Not only did the Bantu spread iron smelting techniques across Africa, they also were responsible for changing agriculture and nutrition by growing new crops, particularly high-yield crops such as yams, bananas, and plantains. The spread of agriculture led to the explosive growth of village life throughout Africa.

155 Skill Builder 1 How do you find the information you need when you are preparing to write a research paper? The number of books and reference materials might seem overwhelming. You can, however, narrow your search. The place to begin is the library’s computerized card catalog. Using a Computerized Card Catalog Why Learn This Skill? This feature can be found on page 227 of your textbook.

156 Skill Builder 2 Go to the computerized card catalog in your school or local library. Type in the name of an author or the title of a book. Often, you might not know any particular sources. If that is the case, enter a general subject. For example, if you are writing a paper on salt mining, you might enter “salt mines” or “salt” as your subject. Learning the Skill Using a Computerized Card Catalog This feature can be found on page 227 of your textbook.

157 Skill Builder 3 Learning the Skill This feature can be found on page 227 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Using a Computerized Card Catalog When you enter a subject request, the computer will list all the titles that are filed under that subject category, including books, videotapes, audiocassettes, or CDs. The computer might show additional categories for you to check. You will see other information on the screen, such as the author, the media type, and the date the material was published.  Choose a book from the list. A new screen will appear that gives more details about that particular book, such as the publisher, how many pages and illustrations it has, and the language it is written in.

158 Skill Builder 4 Learning the Skill Using a Computerized Card Catalog The computer will then allow you to check to see if the material is available. If it is, write down the call number so you can find the material on the library shelf. This feature can be found on page 227 of your textbook.

159 Skill Builder 5 Practicing the Skill This feature can be found on page 227 of your textbook. Follow the steps on the following slides to collect materials on the subject of West African kingdoms in the eighth through sixteenth centuries. Using a Computerized Card Catalog

160 Skill Builder 6 Practicing the Skill Using a Computerized Card Catalog This feature can be found on page 227 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 1.Using the computerized card catalog in the library, conduct a subject search on West African kingdoms. What subject(s) would you look under? How could you broaden or narrow your search?  2.Follow the on-screen instructions to display all the titles under your subject. Find four titles that you think contain information on West African kingdoms.  3.Select one title from your list. How do you find more details on this title? What information should you check to make sure it is an appropriate resource?

161 Skill Builder 7 Practicing the Skill Using a Computerized Card Catalog 4.How many copies of this work are available in the library? Where can you find this work in the library? This feature can be found on page 227 of your textbook.

162 A Story That Matters 1 Read Explorer Finds Great Zimbabwe on page 222 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 222 of your textbook. Great Zimbabwe, the ruins of the capital of Zimbabwe, was the wealthiest city in southern Africa

163 A Story That Matters 2 In what year did Mauch explore southern Africa’s Central Plateau? Mauch explored southern Africa’s Central Plateau in This feature can be found on page 222 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

164 A Story That Matters 3 What was he looking for? He was looking for the ruins of a legendary lost civilization. This feature can be found on page 222 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

165 A Story That Matters 4 Based on his diary entry, how would you describe Mauch’s feelings when he found Great Zimbabwe? He was in awe and full of wonder and excitement. This feature can be found on page 222 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

166 Eyewitness 1 Click the image on the right to listen to an excerpt from page 235 of your textbook. Read the information on page 235 of your textbook. Then answer the questions on the following slides. This feature can be found on page 235 of your textbook. Click the Speaker button to listen to the audio again.

167 Eyewitness 2 Why did Ibn Battuta write that the village of Taghaza was a village “with no good in it”? Ibn Battuta identified many aspects of Taghaza that were disagreeable to him. Among those mentioned are the fact that no one lived there but slaves, the land was just sand, there were no trees, houses were built of rock salt with camel skin roofing, the water was bitter, and the place was full of flies. This feature can be found on page 235 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

168 Eyewitness 3 This feature can be found on page 235 of your textbook. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain the economic value of Taghaza. It provided salt, which is necessary for life and was important in African trade. Besides being the site of salt mines, Taghaza served also as a major center of trade.

169 Video 1 Early African Empires After viewing “Early African Empires,” you should:  Objectives Know that mighty kingdoms flourished in Africa when Europe was still in the Dark Ages.  Recognize the significance of trade in the history of Africa and the world.  Appreciate how interaction among the world's peoples enhances the lives of all. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click in the window above to view a preview of the World History video.

170 Video 2 Early African Empires About the time that Christianity was spreading in Europe, what religion was spreading into Africa? Islam was spreading across Arabia and into Africa. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

171 Video 3 Early African Empires Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why does Chapurkha Dusimba believe that the study of ancient civilization is beneficial? Dusimba suggests that studying ancient times reminds us of what we have in common and that we become better people through multicultural connections.

172 Maps and Charts 1 Rain Forest Desert Mild zone Savanah

173 Maps and Charts 2 Trading for Salt and Gold in West Africa, A.D. 800–1500 Map Chart African Trading Empires, 1000 B.C.–A.D Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.

174 Maps and Charts 2a

175 Maps and Charts 2b

176 Maps and Charts 2aa East African States and Trade, A.D. 400–1500 Map Chart African Trading Empires, 1000 B.C.–A.D Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slide.

177 Maps and Charts 2ab

178 Maps and Charts 2ac

179 Chapter Transparency

180 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 1

181 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. The author is unknown. Wisdom, or learning, cannot be purchased with money. It requires study. Some things or people never change. Crocodiles were native animals of West Africa. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2

182 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. Merchants received favors, and the king filled his treasury with taxes. They provided mutual support for members. The lineage was based on the mothers. Daily Focus Skills Transparency 3

183 End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

184 End of Slide Show


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