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The Sudanic Kingdoms Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.

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1 The Sudanic Kingdoms Ghana, Mali, and Songhai

2 Standards SSWH6 The student will describe the diverse characteristics of early African societies before 1800 CE. b. Describe the development and decline of the Sudanic kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai); include the roles of Sundiata, and the pilgrimage of Mansa Musa to Mecca. c. Describe the trading networks by examining trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and slaves; include the Swahili trading cities. e. Analyze the role of geography and the distribution of resources played in the development of trans-Saharan trading networks


4 Kingdom of Ghana First great trading state in West Africa
Located in the Upper Niger River Valley Farmers in villages ruled by a local ruler ** This is not in the forest region of the south where the modern nation of Ghana exists


6 Kings of Ghana Strong rulers who governed without any laws
Played active roles in the kingdom Vast wealth Relied on the well trained army of thousands of men to maintain their kingdom

7 Economy & Trade Lived off land
Prospered from possession of both iron & gold Skilled blacksmiths- highly valued because of their ability to turn ore into tools & weapons Gold made in the center of an enormous trade empire Muslim merchants brought metal goods, textiles, horses, and salt to Ghana Used silent trade Other exports included ivory, ostrich feathers, hides, and slaves Most of the trade was by the Berbers – “fleets of the desert” Ghana flourished for several hundred years Collapsed during the 1100s


9 Kingdom of Mali Mali, the greatest of West African trading societies, established in the mid 13th century by Sundiata Keita. Sundiata defeated the Ghanaians and captured their capital in 1240. United the people of Mali and created a strong government. Timbuktu was its most famous trading city Built its wealth and power on gold and salt trade Most were farmers who lived in villages with local rulers

10 Reign of Mansa Musa One of the richest and most powerful kings
Ruled from Mansa means king Doubled size of Mali Created a strong central government divided one kingdom into provinces Devout Muslim Timbuktu recognized as one of the intellectual capitals of the Muslim world Last powerful ruler of Mali By 1359 civil war divided Mali

11 Kingdom of Songhai In 1009, a ruler established the Dia dynasty
First Songhai state benefited from the Muslim trade routes linking Arabia, North Africa, and West Africa Gao- chief trading center Trade in gold and salt made the empire so prosperous Songhai empire reached its heights of its power under Muhammad Ture Maintained peace and security with a navy and soldiers on horseback Declined during the 16th century. By 1600 were little more than a remnant of their former power.

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