2StandardsSSWH6 The student will describe the diverse characteristics of early African societies before 1800 CE.b. Describe the development and decline of the Sudanic kingdoms (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai); include the roles of Sundiata, and the pilgrimage of Mansa Musa to Mecca.c. Describe the trading networks by examining trans-Saharan trade in gold, salt, and slaves; include the Swahili trading cities.e. Analyze the role of geography and the distribution of resources played in the development of trans-Saharan trading networks
4Kingdom of Ghana First great trading state in West Africa Located in the Upper Niger River ValleyFarmers in villages ruled by a local ruler** This is not in the forest region of the south where the modern nation of Ghana exists
6Kings of Ghana Strong rulers who governed without any laws Played active roles in the kingdomVast wealthRelied on the well trained army of thousands of men to maintain their kingdom
7Economy & Trade Lived off land Prospered from possession of both iron & goldSkilled blacksmiths- highly valued because of their ability to turn ore into tools & weaponsGold made in the center of an enormous trade empireMuslim merchants brought metal goods, textiles, horses, and salt to GhanaUsed silent tradeOther exports included ivory, ostrich feathers, hides, and slavesMost of the trade was by the Berbers – “fleets of the desert”Ghana flourished for several hundred yearsCollapsed during the 1100s
9Kingdom of MaliMali, the greatest of West African trading societies, established in the mid 13th century by Sundiata Keita.Sundiata defeated the Ghanaians and captured their capital in 1240.United the people of Mali and created a strong government.Timbuktu was its most famous trading cityBuilt its wealth and power on gold and salt tradeMost were farmers who lived in villages with local rulers
10Reign of Mansa Musa One of the richest and most powerful kings Ruled fromMansa means kingDoubled size of MaliCreated a strong central government divided one kingdom into provincesDevout MuslimTimbuktu recognized as one of the intellectual capitals of the Muslim worldLast powerful ruler of MaliBy 1359 civil war divided Mali
11Kingdom of Songhai In 1009, a ruler established the Dia dynasty First Songhai state benefited from the Muslim trade routes linking Arabia, North Africa, and West AfricaGao- chief trading centerTrade in gold and salt made the empire so prosperousSonghai empire reached its heights of its power under Muhammad TureMaintained peace and security with a navy and soldiers on horsebackDeclined during the 16th century. By 1600 were little more than a remnant of their former power.