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The Museum of National History and Archaeology Constanta Reflecting the romanisation process in the East.

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Presentation on theme: "The Museum of National History and Archaeology Constanta Reflecting the romanisation process in the East."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Museum of National History and Archaeology Constanta Reflecting the romanisation process in the East

2 Roman Dobroudja -the Greek tradition- The Greek tradition is very strong in the area of the Black Sea coast, where three important colonies will be established: Histria (7th c. BC), Tomis (6th c. BC) - Milesian colonies, and Callatis (4th c. BC) - Dorian colony. Conquered by the Romans towards the end of the 1st c. BC and getting special juridical status (civitates liberae or stipendiariae), the three cities maintained, at least for the Early Roman period, their traditional Greek institutions. The Roman civilisation penetrated in the most diverse ways: the colonization, the presence of the army, the specific Roman institutions, the Roman cults contributed to the romanisation of some important categories of the population in the coastal cities, well emphasized by the epigraphic documents.

3 Roman Dobroudja – the Latin area- Western and Central Dobroudja – territory intensely colonized with Roman and Romanised elements Roman-type cities (municipia): Durostorum, Troesmis, Noviodunum, Tropaeum Traiani Various fortifications that formed the final segment of the Danubian Limes : auxiliary forts (Axiopolis, Capidava, Carsium, Arrubium, Aegyssus, Halmyris) and legionary camps (Durostorum - for the Legio XI Claudia, and Troesmis - for the Legio V Macedonica) Numerous rural settlements (vici) confirmed epigraphically or archaeologically.

4 The Museum significant cultural institution for the history and archaeology of the region situated between the Lower Danube and the Black Sea (Dobroudja)

5 The Museum – historical data First attempts : 1879, just after the integration of Dobroudja into the borders of the Romanian state In 1911 the foundations of the building where the museum functions nowadays were set (it was The Communal Palace). In the beginning, there was only a collection which was exposed in one of the halls oh the palace Between 1959 and 1977 the Museum has functioned in the building of the Archbishopric's Palace, under the name of Archaological Museum of Dobroudja From 1977 it returned in the old building, under the current name

6 The Museum – technical data Coordinated by a Director and a board which inculde the departament chiefs 28 specialists, 29 restoration and preservation workers and 59 auxiliary personel are working in six departments (Exhibition, Research, Monuments, Numismatics, Modern and Contemporary history, Laboratory) Main activities: archaeological excavations (10 main sites and almost permanent salvage excavations), historical research, restoration and conservation, photo, graphics, technical and computerized documentation 52,000 speciality titles in museum’s library 60,000 objetcs in the archeology collections 67,000 coins in the numismatic colection Periodicals: “Pontica”, “Analele Dobrogei” Monograph series (“Bibliotheca Tomitana”)

7 The Exhibition organised chronologically, starting with traces from Paleolithic and Neolithic and ending with modern and contemporary history of Dobroudja. The largest part is dedicated to the Graeco- Roman period

8 Exhibition - Roman artifacts discovered in Dobroudja- 2 nd – 3rd c. AD Bronze vessels made “in Circo Flaminio” (Rome) Funerary stele Venus Krater with dionysiac scenes

9 Exhibition – Roman period the sculpture hoard of Tomis 2 nd -3 rd c. AD Fortuna with Pontos Glykon serpent Nemesis in a bilingual dedication Isis

10 Exhibition -Roman Glass collection-

11 Exhibition – Late Roman period in Dobroudja –

12 Tomis – metropolis of Scythia Minor Founded by colonists of Miletus (6 th c.BC); Integrated into the Empire with status of civitas libera et immunis, the city rapidly becomes a metropolis of the province Moesia Inferior -headquarters of governor (2 nd to 3 rd c. AD); Mixed population (Greek and Latin speaking); Late Roman - Early Byzantine period : headquarter of province Scythia; expands its surface about 70 hectares. The triumphant Christianity is very eloquently illustrated by the numerous basilicas discovered and by city’s leading role in the ecclesiastic organisation of the province. Tomis – Constantia - Constanta : the current name of the city perpetuated itself, starting with the Middle Byzantine period

13 Tomis – Ovidius’ exile – first “infusion” of Latinity Publius Ovidius Naso was exiled to Tomis by Emperor Augustus (8 AD) In Tomis he wrote some of his important works, i.e. the poems “Tristia” and “Epistulae ex Ponto”, which express sadness of being far away from home. Despite his appeals for mercy, Ovidius remained in Tomis until his death (17 AD). Ovidius’ exile at Tomis initiated a tradition and his death in this place perpetuated a legend regarding his tomb The statue in front of Museum erected in 1887 by Italian sculptor Ettore Ferrari. There is a copy of it in Sulmona (Italy), the poet’s birthplace

14 Tomis – Roman edifice with mosaic floor 3 rd /4 th to 6 th c. AD

15 Tomis - Late Roman period -painted funeral chamber (4 th c. AD)-

16 Local museums - Histria Greek colony founded by colonists from Miletus at the middle of the 7th c. BC; uniterrupted history of more than 1300 years, until the 7th c. AD Under the Roman rule from the end of the 1st c. BC, it experiences a remarkable period of prosperity during the 2nd to 3rd c. AD Numerous inscriptions certify the presence of Roman colonists in a mostly Greek environment The rural territory (regio Histriae), attributed by the provincial authorities, is much more romanised, with confirmation of numerous Roman villages The visible monuments today are those from the Roman and Late Roman periods: massive enclosing walls, public edifices (basilicas, baths), markets, private luxury buildings, Early Christian churches The local museum - inaugurated in 1980 and restored in 2001

17 Histria – monuments Nocturne – Late Roman city wallBishopric basilica Roman baths IRoman baths II

18 Local museums – Adamclisi (Tropaeum Traiani) Pure Roman city (municipium) founded by the emperor Trajan, at the same time with the nearby triumphal monument erected in order to glorify the victories over the the Dacians and their allied Sarmatians and Germans during the first Dacian War (105-106) The city The monument

19 Adamclisi – Tropaeum Traiani -the triumphal monument- Designed in the architectural style of Apollodorus of Damascus Narrative assembly, with scenes from the Dacian War resembling those from Trajan's column in Rome Entirely reconstituted in the years 1972-1977 with all the original pieces inside the local museum

20 Adamclisi – Tropaeum Traiani -pieces from triumphal monument-

21 Adamclisi – Tropaeum Traiani -the city- Basilica forensis

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