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Change Management. Organizations do not change! People Change……… One person at a time.

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Presentation on theme: "Change Management. Organizations do not change! People Change……… One person at a time."— Presentation transcript:

1 Change Management

2 Organizations do not change! People Change……… One person at a time

3 Common Experience with Change What is the biggest experience of change you have experienced at CTS over the last year? What impact did this change have on you and others? What was your initial response to this change?

4 Expectations Identify 1 thing you expect to learn today?

5 Agenda Context for change Change roles and responsibilities Stages of change Managing resistance stakeholder analysis and involvement planning Change management levers –sponsorship –communication –Performance management –Organizational structure –Capability development –Workforce transition Risk assessment

6 Its an era of change. You’ve got to basically accept change as an everyday event and believe that it is a good thing!

7 “Without the appropriate change implementation support, a company spends $3-$10 for every dollar invested in technology, to retrofit it to the culture” »Gartner Group “Nearly half of all major technical initatives fail because of fear and anxiety in the organisation, and resistance from key managers” »Computer World

8 Why Change Fails Top barriers in major change programs –competing resources48% –Functional boundaries44 –Lack of change skills42 –Middle management38 –Long IT lead times35 –Communication34 –Employee opposition ( resistance)33 –Initiative fatigue32 –Unrealistic timetables31 »source: PriceWaterhouseCoopers

9 Making Change Succeed Factors that helped the most successful companies achieve their goals –Good communication100% –Strong mandate by senior management95 –Setting intermediate goals and deadlines95 –Having an adaptive plan91 –Having access to adequate resources86 –Demonstrating urgency of change86 –Setting performance measures81 –Delivering early, tangible results ( quick wins) 76 –Involving customers and suppliers early62 –Benchmarking V’s competitors62 »source:PriceWaterhouseCoopers

10 Communicating about Change ( 5 Communication Points) 1. Why is the change necessary? – ( rationale) 2. What are we changing to? –( Vision) 3. How and when do we intend to get there? –(plan) 4. What is the personal impact? –(what's in it for me?) 5. Is help available to support transitions? –(resources)

11 1.Why is Change Necessary? To survive in today's changing market –PCA’s can be seen / treated as a commodity To keep up with changing customer needs, such as build to order, immediate delivery To achieve our goal of leading the sector of low to mid-volume / high mix EMS business’s Increase efficiency and customer satisfaction and therefore profit

12 .CTS’s Key Objectives Develop strategic relationships with key customers Provide best in class product and process quality Create world class manufacturing processes Develop strategic supplier relationships Become employer of choice

13 2.What are we changing to? Globally unified More efficient More profitable More customer focused

14 3.How do we intend to get there? Through Implementation of key strategies such as: –Supply chain management –Core teams –Six-Sigma –Lean Manufacturing –Inter Company Benchmarking

15 4.What is the personal Impact? More successful company which can invest in its resources Increased stock value and profit sharing Employer of choicetalented, challenging co-workers. Working for a globally recognized industry leader More enjoyable work enviroment

16 5. What help do you need to support change?

17 5.Help is available to Support Change! Training classes for you and managers Increased corporate-wide communication Visible senior management support Change infrastructure built around projects New, consistent vocabulary to talk about change.

18 Context for change ( is CTS alone?) Companies must continually undergo organizational transformations to survive and grow Organizational effectiveness Time

19 Context for change Organizational transformations can be disruptive Organizational effectiveness Time Transformation Point Before Established systems Solidified culture High level of effectiveness During and After Disruptions to leader ship & systems Organizational nervousness Reduced effectiveness

20 The Transformation Point Low stability: high chaos High emotional stress Control becomes a major issue High undirected energy Glorifying the past Conflict increases Resistance starts to build

21 Organizational Culture Culture consists of the norms, values, beliefs, expectations, behaviors and assumptions that exist in an organization

22 Exercise:What do you think? How do you think CTS’s culture affects its ability to successfully change? How will it affect your ability to implement your change? What can you do as a Manager or Project Leader to move CTTS towards an ideal culture?

23 “Corporate culture is real and powerful. It’s also hard to change, and you won’t find much support for doing so inside or outside your company. If you run up against the culture when trying to redirect strategy, attempt to dodge. If you must meddle with the culture directly, tread carefully and with modest expectations” –Bro Uttal –Corporate Culture Vultures

24 Summary Companies that fail to change may not survive By changing, CTS stand to gain significantly in many areas, which will benefit everyone CTS’s organizational culture may not be “ideal” but understanding the current culture will assist in helping make changes that will positively affect it.

25 Change Roles and Responsibilities

26 Change Roles Executive Sponsorship –Legitimizes the change Sustaining Sponsor –Represents the executive sponsor Change Agent –Sees the need for change but can not legitimize it Stakeholder –Supports the change ( in beliefs, skills, behaviors, etc)

27 Executive Sponsor Has ultimate authority over and responsibility for the project Has a vested interest in project resourcing and project results Manages organizational expectations Provides high level direction May delegate day to day involvement to a sustaining sponsor

28 Sustaining Sponsor Acts as appointed representative of the Executive Sponsor ( ensure formal appointment) Participates frequently with the project team Interacts with local Stakeholder groups Shares duties with the Executive Sponsor Brings changes to the Executive Sponsor for review and / or approval

29 Characteristics of Successful Sponsors HEAD –Clear understanding of business case for change –Clear understanding of changes impact –Aware of own personal power to make change –Realistic understanding of organizations true capability to reach desired level of change Hands –Initiates objectives, goals, deliverables and scope of the project –Maintains validity of business case until change conclusion –Displays strong public and private support for change –approves work plans and activities –Defines roles/ responsibilities for project teams Heart –Believes in change –communicates with others to help them understand how change will impact them –Motivates and rewards change supporters –Builds and environment to reduce change resistance.

30 Change Agent Anticipates who will lose what –predicts resistance points Plans for the resources people will need to successfully change Effectively communicates the what, when, why and how of the change Creates a change -monitoring system to check whether plans are being put into action Prepares to facilitate the change rather than just make the change happen Looks at how he / she will need to change to work effectively in the new system.

31 Stakeholders All those who will be affected by the change and / or whose active support, commitment and behavior change are required for successful implementation and sustained change

32 3.Stages of Change

33 What to Expect from Change No matter how positive, promising or proactive the change is, expect a sense of loss No matter how competent and comitted stakeholders are, expect a sense of confusion No matter how loyal employees are, expect some initial skepticism and an increase in “me” focus

34 “Positive” Response to Change Uniformed Optimism (Certainty) Informed Pessimism (Doubt) Hopeful Realism (Hope) Informed Optimism (Confidence) Completion(Satisfaction)

35 Responses to Change “Negative Responses to change ” ResistanceResistanceResistanceResistance Passive Active Time Stability Immobilization Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Testing Acceptance

36 Individual Change Response ProductivityProductivityProductivityProductivity Denial Commitment ResistanceExploration Adapted from Kubler -Ross

37 Recognizing the Individual Change Response ProductivityProductivityProductivityProductivity Denial Commitment ResistanceExploration Adapted from Kubler -Ross What you see AngerComplaining Glorifying the past Skepticism Unwillingness to participate What you Hear It wont work It used to be… The data is flawed.. What you see IndifferenceDisbeliefAvoidance What you Hear Silence It will never happen It wont affect me What you See Future Orientation InitiativeSelf-efficiencyConfidence What you hear How can I contribute Lets get on with it What you see Energy Risk taking Tentativeness Impatience Activity without focus What you hear Optimism I’ve got an idea Lets try… What if ….

38 Individual Change Process By Definition, Individuals will move through the process at different speeds Your role is to effectively maximize the speed through the change process, reducing the time spent in Denial and Resistance

39 Summary There are four typical stages of change –Denial –resistance –Exploration –Commitment all these stages are normal and expected Be sure to plan for and manage all stages, especially Resistance.

40 Remember….. “ Its not so much that we’re afraid of change, or so in love with the old ways, but it’s a place in between we fear…it’s like being in between trapezes ….there’s nothing to hold on to.”

41 4. Managing Resistance

42 NormalResistance is a Normal Reaction to Disruption and Real or Perceived Loss

43 Question? What resistance to change have you encountered in the past ?

44 Sources of Resistance Aptitude –Is unable to make the change attitude –Doesn’t want to make the change Threshold for Change –Doesn’t have the “energy” to make the change

45 Sources of Resistance: Aptitude Individual Abilities See change as more work Fear inability to develop the new skills required Don’t understand what it will take to be successful in the future state Low Tolerance for Change Fear the unknown Don’t want to accept the death of the old ways ( preservation of the past) Have “scars”from prior changes

46 Sources of Resistance: Attitude Lack of Motivation Don’t see the need for change A compelling vision has not been presented No positive consequences for changing Perceive costs greater than benefit Differing Assessments Change initiators usually have more information than stakeholders Those affected may not see the “Big Picture” therefore the change does not make sense

47 The Faces of Resistance Anger Attack Silence Withdrawal Not Enough Time Endless Questions Intellectualizing Confusion Just don’t want To Get It Ignore IT Deny It Glorify the Past Going Through The motions DetailsDetailsDetails

48 Faces Of Resistance Active Because it is out in the open, active resistance is more constructive and easier to manage than its underground counterpart Passive When resistance is Hidden, it can go unnoticed and undermine efforts to transform an organisation

49 Faces of Resistance Active –Deliberate opposition –Hostility –Agitating others –Failing to report problems –Problem denial –Chronic quarrels –“This won’t work” Passive –Withholding info –Procrastination/ Delays –No confrontation, but still no productivity –Not attacking solution, but not supporting either –Over-complicating the new way –“We’ve always don it this way

50 Managing Resistance Apply the appropriate level of involvement given the degree of change Major road blocks Best case Chaos Fine tuning Major Transformation Degree of Change Inform Consult Include Involve Degree of Involvement

51 Managing Resistance: Aptitude Identify needed Knowledge and skills Provide a training / development program Create opportunities to practice without consequences Reward demonstrations of new abilities Mentor and model desired behaviors and skills Monitor workloads to ensure they remain realistic

52 Managing Resistance: Attitude Ensure people understand why change is needed- the business case for change Put the change into the context of the “ Big Picture” link it to other changes Convey a compelling vision for the future If possible, personalize benefits of the change Establish rewards, recognition, incentives and performance objectives that support change objectives

53 Managing Resistance: Raising Thresholds for Change Communication –Preview, view and review –Ensure regular, timely information distribution –Communicate with the audiences “needs” in mind –Clarify what is not changing along with what is Participate –Involve people in decision making –Seek out and use ideas and opinions

54 Raising Thresholds for Change Facilitate ( Change) –Understand People Find out how people are doing along the way, not just at the end Provide opportunities for two way communication and “Venting” Don’t just hear Listen! –Find supporting people Leverage the help of those who commit early Create a change infrastructure.

55 Stakeholder: A Definition One who will be affected by the change and / or whose active support, commitment and behavioral change are required for successful implementation and sustained change

56 Stakeholders Involvement Strategies Level of Change and Commitment Required Inform Provide the stakeholder with information on a need to know basis only Consult Occasionall y obtain the stakeholders input, advice and expertise Include Include the stakeholder in the project by giving him / her a support role and / or making him / her project champion Involve Actively involve the stakeholder in the project, role in decision making

57 Facilitating The Individual Change Response ProductivityProductivityProductivityProductivity DenialCommitment ResistanceExploration Adapted from Kubler -Ross Provide frequent consistent messages Confront without threatening Demonstrate visible signs of change Clarify what is and what is not changing Address rumors and misinformation Provide guidance, support and recognition Provide frequent feedback on progress Enroll those here as advocates to assist others Be careful not to overload or burn out Probe for underlying feelings/ concerns Acknowledge and legitimize feelings Clarify case for change( vision, plan) Listen Relate expectations and consequences for non compliance Acknowledge efforts and the struggle Celebrate success Provide opportunities for visible advocacy Provide opportunities for participation and contribution

58 Facilitative Techniques ProductivityProductivityProductivityProductivity Denial Commitment ResistanceExploration Adapted from Kubler -Ross Communicate & Clarify Educate & Re-emphasize Acknowledge & Advocate Facilitate & Encourage

59 Summary Resistance is a normal response to change There are many different displays of resistance Encourage expression of resistance; get it out in the open Help move people toward exploration and commitment in order to minimize resistance and productivity loss Choose suitable strategies to deal with group and individual responses: customize plans

60 What is Change Communication Introduces, educates and informs target audiences, both internally and externally, about change efforts. Creates awareness, understanding and dialogue among stakeholders Establishes the message, channels and ongoing feedback processes between management, employees, customers and suppliers

61 Goals of Change Communication Move people toward commitment Help people make informed choices Build trust through honesty and openness Demonstrate empathy Seek to understand Report progress-or lack of-so people can be responsible contributors to success

62 5 Key Communication Points Rationale Vision Plan WIIFM Resources Why the change is occurring What the organization will look like in the future How and when the organisation plans to make these changes Why they should support the change Who is supporting the change, sponsors, change agents

63 Frame of Reference A personal frame is made up of assumptions about self, others, tasks, and the organization that lead a person to behave in a particular way

64 “A common trap managers and executives get caught in comes from attributing one’s own perceptions, values, feelings and needs to other people. In other words, we often assume people are made like ourselves” From “making mergers work” By Price Pritchett

65 Two Way Communication Ensures that both parties have the same understanding of a situation Reduces misunderstandings Provides a vehicle to build trust and demonstrate empathy

66 Communication Channels A communication channel is a means by which information goes from one party to another Business Monday Company magazines News letters Press release All employees meetings Posters Hotlines Staff meetings Voice mails Focus groups Bulletin boards Home mailings Network broadcasts Video/DVD Letters from CEO Internet Paycheck stuffers

67 Communicating to Build Commitment Time Degree of support Degree of support Degree of support Degree of support Contact MemoVideomeeting Awareness of change

68 Developing a Communication Plan

69 Myths about Change Communication What others don’t know can’t hurt you-the rumor mill will fill in what you don’t explain You can control what people will perceive Understanding can be developed simply by broadcasting information Giving people information will lessen the impact of the change Communication stays the same over the life of the project-same messages same media One size fits all

70 Principles of Change Communication Communicate, communicate, communicate Align communication to the business case and vision for change Communication must be: –Consistent –Frequent –Tailored to the stackholder group Use varied, but existing channels to communicate to stackholders

71 What is Performance Management A method to link employees actions and behaviours to company strategies and goals using systems that define, monitor, measure, report on, improve and reward desired employee performance

72 What is Performance Management A method to Link employee actions and behaviors to company strategies and goals using systems that define, monitor, measure, report on, improve and reward desired employee performance

73 Why is Performance Management Important in successful Change Implementation “ That which gets measured and rewarded gets done” What are the new behaviours and performance standards? How will we measure them? How will we reward them?

74 Principles of Performance Management Performance standards are aligned with company strategies and goals Metrics exist to monitor performance Employees are provided with specific goals and actions to improve performance, on an on-going basis.

75 Team based Structures Work Best When People share common, clearly defined goals Everyone on the team will benefit from achieving the goal Different types of expertise and skill are needed to accomplish the goal Tasks require interdependence and interaction The organizations culture supports and values employee involvement Managers are willing to use team output

76 Team based structures are less effective when: One person can be equally or more effective at the task The task requires individual accountability and / or fast paced decision making Work output required in a short time Team members accountabilities and reward systems are different(especially when in conflict) Not having the requisite interpersonal skills, or the energy or commitment to acquire them Managers do not understand or support team process Organization does not have value collaboration and will not reward people who share information, expertise or success.

77 Factors in Effective Team Building Coaching: –The team management philosophy requires that workers be trained to “ manage” themselves. Managers need to be coaches rather than “bosses” Decision Making: –It must be made clear who has the responsibility and authority for which decisions, both inside and outside the team.

78 Factors in Effective Team Building Communicating: – Everyone needs to know what's happening, and clear mechanisms for communications must be in place Chartering –Mission, Vision, Values –Ground rules –Roles and responsibilities

79 Factors in Effective Team Building Competencies: –Teamwork –Decisiveness –Problem solving; conflict resolution –Communication –Project management –Leadership


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