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1 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

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1 1 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

2 2 Oracle Database Vault – DBA Best Practices Kamal Tbeileh, Sr. Principal Product Manager, Database Security Chi Ching Chui, Sr. Development Manager, Database Security

3 3 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

4 4 Program Agenda Oracle Database Vault – Overview Managing Database Users and Security Controlling Sensitive Database Operations

5 5 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Program Agenda Oracle Database Vault – Overview Managing Database Users and Security Controlling Sensitive Database Operations

6 6 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle Database Vault Privileged User Controls Procurement HR Finance Application DBA select * from finance.customers DBA Application Enforce who, where, when, and how data can be accessed using rules and factors Enforce least privilege and prevent privileged users from accessing apps data Prevent application by-pass and enforce enterprise data governance Restrict ad hoc database changes

7 7 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Impact on Database Operations Administration TaskOracle Database Vault Control? Comments Startup, shutdownNo Creating databasesNo Cloning databasesNo Configuring DB network connectivityNo Managing initialization parametersYesALTER SYSTEM Command Rule protects some parameters Scheduling database jobs on protected schemas YesOracle Database Vault authorization is needed

8 8 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Program Agenda Oracle Database Vault – Overview Managing Database Users and Security Controlling Sensitive Database Operations

9 9 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users Oracle Database Vault Creates an Accounts Administrator in the database with the DV_ACCTMGR role Responsible for creating new users and profiles and managing existing ones Can grant the CONNECT role to users Can change password for all users except for Security Admins As a best practice, customer should create personalized accounts for Accounts Admins Database Accounts Administrator

10 10 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users Oracle Database Vault creates a Security Administrator in the database with the DV_OWNER role Manages creation of protection policies including Realms and Command Rules Does not have access to data Manages his/her own password As a best practice, customer should create personalized accounts for Security Admins Database Security Administrator

11 11 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users and Security Security Admin Accounts Admin Junior DBA Senior DBA Backup Patch Install Tuning Recovery Managing DBAs Create Security Policies to protect data Create and manage Database Users Application user

12 12 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users Oracle Database Vault allows customers to control DBA actions –Distinguish between Senior and Junior DBAs –Distinguish between in-house DBA and outsourced or off-shored DBA Senior DBA is a user who: –Has been granted system privileges and roles with ADMIN OPTION –Has been authorized as OWNER to the Oracle Data Dictionary realm –Can grant system privileges to new users Junior DBA, outsourced DBA, or off-shored DBA can be controlled on what he/she can or cannot do Senior DBAs and Junior DBAs

13 13 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users and Security In a small organization where customers have a single DBA –The same person will be handling multiple tasks As a best practice, customer should –Create separate dedicated accounts for different responsibilities like: DBA_DEBRA, ACCTS_ADMIN_DEBRA, SEC_ADMIN_DEBRA –Lock default accounts including Database Vault default accounts This allows customer to: –Prevent compromised privileged accounts from accessing application data –Track each account’s actions for auditing and compliance For Small IT Organization

14 14 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users and Security In a medium size organization with a handful of DBAs –DBAs will be multi-tasking and one senior DBA will be a db Security Admin –Customer might be outsourcing some IT operations As a best practice, customer should –Create separate dedicated accounts for different responsibilities –Lock default accounts This allows customer to: –Prevent compromised privileged accounts from accessing application data –Outsource some IT operations and control outsourced DBAs actions –Protect the database from unauthorized changes For Medium Size IT Organizations

15 15 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users and Security For large customers –Dedicated staff can be assigned to database security –Customer has contractors and may be doing some outsourcing / off-shoring As a best practice, customer should –Create separate dedicated accounts –Lock default accounts This helps customer: –Prevent hackers from accessing application data –Control what junior DBAs, outsourced DBAs, or off-shored DBAs can do –Protect the database from unauthorized changes For Large IT Organizations

16 16 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users and Security Cloud services provider –Can delegate Security Administration and Accounts Administration to customers so they manage who can access their data –Provider’s own security staff can be given access in emergency As a best practice, cloud services provider should –Create separate dedicated accounts for customers and own staff –Lock default accounts This helps cloud services provider: –Improve SLA when it comes to security –Empower end customers and give them final say on who can access data For SAAS and Cloud Services Providers

17 17 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Managing Database Users and Security IT Organization Separation of Duty Develop and communicate security policies Conduct internal audits with the security group Work with external auditors Work with the security team to remedy any audit finding Provision new users Assign roles and responsibilities De-provision users who leave the company Manage Database accounts Manage passwords for default accounts Manage Oracle Database Vault Realms and Command rules Review security reports Work with business owners to authorize exceptions and monitoring Work with Information Security on internal audits Backup Tuning Patching and upgrade Replication and High Availability Work with security and data owners for emergency access Develop new applications Maintain existing applications Provide patches to DBAs to apply on production Test applications and patches with Oracle Database Vault Information Security Management Information Security Management User Provisioning User Provisioning Database Administration Database Security Development QA Development QA Company CIO

18 18 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Program Agenda Oracle Database Vault – Overview Managing Database Users and Security Controlling Sensitive Database Operations –Changing Init Parameters –Job Scheduling –Oracle Data Pump –Oracle Streams –Oracle Data Guard –Explain Plan, Analyze Table –Database Patching

19 19 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Changes to DB Init Parameters Created by default when Oracle Database Vault is installed Prevents changes to DB parameters related to security, audit, and file locations –This tightens the security of the database As a best Practice, Users or roles who should be authorized to change these init parameters, need to be: –Granted the ALTER SYSTEM privilege –Added to the “Allow Fine Grained Control of System Parameters” Rule Set ALTER SYSTEM Command Rule

20 20 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Changes to DB Init Parameters Authorizing a DBA to Change Parameters Example

21 21 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Database Job Scheduling To schedule database jobs, DBA needs privileges like: – CREATE JOB, CREATE ANY JOB, MANAGE SCHEDULER Security Administrator needs to authorize DBA to be able to schedule jobs on realm protected schemas Authorization can be granted on the entire database or on a schema or table level Authorization can be revoked from the user once done

22 22 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Database Job Scheduling Best Practice Example

23 23 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Database Job Scheduling Best Practice Example

24 24 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Oracle Data Pump DBA needs to be granted EXP_FULL_DATABASE / IMP_FULL_DATABASE roles For realm-protected data, more authorization is needed: –Security Administrator can give authorization on a specific database object, a whole schema, or on the entire database –To export / import the whole database, user needs to be granted DV_OWNER role for the duration of the operation Data Pump authorization should be revoked once export / import is done Best Practices

25 25 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Oracle Data Pump Best Practices Example

26 26 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Oracle Data Pump Best Practices Example

27 27 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Controlling Oracle Streams To replicate realm-protected data using Oracle Streams grant DV_STREAMS_ADMIN role to the user who manages it Best Practices

28 28 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle Data Guard For Oracle Active Data Guard and Oracle Data Guard Physical Standby: –install Oracle Database Vault software on primary database and all standby databases –Follow Oracle support note instructions Oracle Data Guard Logical Standby is not currently supported with Oracle Database Vault Best Practices

29 29 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Running EXPLAIN PLAN DBA can run EXPLAIN PLAN on realm-protected tables without having Realm authorization or access to apps data PLAN_TABLE should be created in –DBA’s own schema –Or in a schema where the DBA has INSERT and SELECT privileges to the table Best Practice

30 30 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Running EXPLAIN PLAN Best Practice Example

31 31 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Running ANALYZE TABLE Best Practice DBA can run ANALYZE TABLE on realm-protected tables without having Realm authorization or access to apps data CHAINED_ROWS table should be created in –DBA’s own schema –Or in a schema where the DBA has INSERT and SELECT privileges to the table

32 32 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Running ANALYZE TABLE Best Practice Example

33 33 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Grant DV_PATCH_ADMIN role to user doing database patching – SYS user typically Protection for apps data remains in effect during patching Revoke DV_PATCH_ADMIN role once patching is done Best Practices Database Patching

34 34 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Best Practices Example Database Patching

35 35 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle Database Vault – DBA Best Practices Oracle Technology Network link oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/database-vault/index.html –Download white papers and watch demos –Download protection policies for Applications PeopleSoft, Siebel, JD Edwards EnterpriseOne and more –Download information on SAP certification Additional Resources

36 36 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. TIMETITLELOCATION 9:00 am – 10:00 am Hands-On Lab: Oracle Audit Vault (29964) Tammy Bednar, Sr. Principal Product Manager, Oracle Marriott Marquis Room: Salon 12/13 9:00 am – 10:00 am Session: Improving Your Security Posture (13220) Bruce Lowenthal, Director of Security Alerts, Oracle Eric Maurice, Director of Software Security Assurance, Oracle Moscone South Room: :30 am – 11:30 am Oracle Exadata: Enabling Research at Merck (9687) Michael Tucker Database Administrator, Merck, Inc Vinoy Lanjwal Database Administrator, Merck, Inc Moscone South Room: :00 pm – 1:00 pm Hands-On Lab: Oracle Database Vault (29962) Kamal Tbeileh, Sr. Principal Product Manager, Oracle Ken Zeng, Sr. Business Development Director, Oracle Marriott Marquis Room: Salon 12/13 1:30 pm – 2:30 pm Session: All About Oracle Database Security (14123) Thomas Kyte, Architect, Oracle Moscone South Room: 103 3:00 am – 4:00 pm Session: Oracle Database Security Performance: Best Practices (13600) Kurt Lysy, Principal Product Manager, Oracle Moscone South Room: 104 Oracle Open World – Thursday, October 6

37 37 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Q&A

38 38 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Latin America 2011 December 6–8, 2011 Tokyo 2012 April 4–6, 2012

39 39 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle OpenWorld Bookstore Visit the Oracle OpenWorld Bookstore for a fabulous selection of books on many of the conference topics and more! Bookstore located at Moscone West, Level 2 All Books at 20% Discount

40 40 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle Products Available Online Oracle Store Buy Oracle license and support online today at oracle.com/store

41 41 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

42 42 Copyright © 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.


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