2Course Objectives In this course you learn to: Identify various components of the Oracle architecture.Start up and shut down an Oracle database.Create an operational database.Manage Oracle control files, redo log files, datafiles, tablespaces, segments, extents, and blocks.Manage users, privileges, and resources.Perform basic backup and recovery operations.Implement network connectivity. This lesson introduces you to Oracle 11g Edition and the tasks of a Database Administrator.
3The Oracle11g Enterprise Edition The Oracle11g Enterprise Edition is an Object-Relational Database Management System designed for Grid Computing.A Grid architecture is composed of pools of servers, storage, and networksGoal: a flexible architecture to meet on-demand computing needs.Example: Different applications can run on a grid of linked database servers – when demand increases, a DBA can provision more servers to an application that demands more resources.Grid computing focuses on high performance and scalability.
4Grid ComputingGrid computing turns computing into a utility, where users don't care where the data resides, or what computer processes a request.Users request information or computation and have it delivered - as much as they want, whenever they want.For the DBA, the grid is about resource allocation, information sharing, and high availability.Oracle Database with Real Application Clusters and Oracle Clusterware provide the infrastructure for your database grid.Automatic Storage Management provides the infrastructure for a storage grid.Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control provides you with complete management of your grid.
5Grid ComputingOracle Real Application Clusters enables a single database to run across multiple clustered nodes in a grid, pooling the processing resources of several standard machines.Oracle Clusterware is a portable cluster software that allows clustering of single servers so that they cooperate as a single system. Oracle Clusterware also provides the required infrastructure for Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC). Oracle Clusterware also enables the protection of any Oracle application or any other kind of application within a cluster.Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM) provides a virtualization layer between the database and storage. It treats multiple disks as a single disk group, and lets you dynamically add or remove disks while keeping databases online.
6Oracle Database software enables grid computing with the following characteristics: Performance and scalability: Implemented through low cost hardware clusters, like Itanium and Linux.Reliability: Continuous availability of data and applications through Oracle Data Guard.Security and privacy: security features to share enterprise grid resources while maintaining privacy and security.Self-management:Oracle infrastructure automates many functions.A single DBA can manage hundreds of servers through Oracle Enterprise Manager (OEM) Cloud Control.Distributed computing: Oracle has advanced integration features that allow applications and data to run anywhere in the network.
7How does Grid Differ from Cluster? Cluster – a technology used to create a grid infrastructure.Clusters have static resources for specific applications for specific owners.Grids can consist of multiple clusters.Grids have dynamic resource pools shareable among applications and users.Grid does not require all severs in a grid to run the same set of applications.
8Oracle Software Components used to build a Grid include: Oracle Real Application ClustersRAC is a cluster database with shared cache architecture that runs on multiple servers.Servers are attached through a cluster interconnect and shared storage subsystem.A RAC database appears like a single database to system users.All standard backup and recovery tools work transparently with RAC.All SQL operations are identical for RAC versus a standard Oracle database.
9Oracle Software Components used to build a Grid include: (cont.) Automatic Storage ManagementSimplifies management of Oracle database files.ASM requires the management of disk groups as opposed to individual files.Oracle Scheduler – enables scheduling business and IT tasks (jobs).Oracle StreamsEnables streaming data between databases, nodes, or blade farms in a grid so it can be shared easily.Can keep two or more copies of data in sync as updates are applied.
10Oracle Software Components used to build a Grid include: (cont.) Oracle Transportable TablespacesAllows Oracle datafiles to be unplugged from a database, moved/copied to a new location and plugged into another database.Supports simultaneous mounting of read-only tablespaces by two or more databases.Oracle Data GuardAllows a primary database to automatically failover to a standby database.Allows multiple standby databases.Failover can be to servers running different operating systems, e.g., LINUX and Windows.
12Types of Database Users (cont.) Database Administrators: (Each database requires at least one DBA)DBA’s responsibilities can include the following tasks:Installing and upgrading the Oracle Database server and application toolsDownload/install software patches (patch releases) from Oracle SupportAllocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database systemCreating primary database storage structures (tablespaces) after application developers have designed an applicationCreating primary objects (tables, views, indexes) once application developers have designed an applicationModifying the database structure, as necessary, from information given by application developers
13Types of Database Users (cont.) Database Administrators: (cont.)Enrolling users and maintaining system securityEnsuring compliance with Oracle license agreementsControlling and monitoring user access to the databaseMonitoring and optimizing the performance of the database (Tuning)Planning for backup and recovery of database informationMaintaining archived data on tape (or disk)Backing up and restoring the databaseBackup using Recovery Manager (RMAN) softwareRecover with RMANContacting Oracle for technical support
14Types of Database Users (cont.) Security Officers: A security officer enrolls users, controls and monitors user access to the database, and maintains system securityAs a DBA, you might not be responsible for these duties if your system has a seperate security officer.Network Administrators: Administer Oracle networking products, such as Oracle Net Services.Application Administrators: Administer a particular application. Each application can have its own administrator.
15Types of Database Users (cont.) Application Developers:Designing and developing the database applicationDesigning the database structure for an applicationEstimating storage requirements for an applicationSpecifying modifications of the database structure for an applicationRelaying this information to a database administratorTuning the application during developmentEstablishing security measures for an application during developmentDatabase Users:Database users interact with the database through applications or utilitiesEntering, modifying, and deleting data, where permittedGenerating reports from the data
16Structured Query Language (SQL) Primary means of communicating with the database is SQL.There are three ways to submit these SQL statements and commands to Oracle Database:Direct communication - command-line use of SQL statements.Indirect communication - through Oracle Enterprise Manager web interface.Direct communication - through SQL Developer software.SQL*Plus Used To:Start up and shut down the databaseSet database initialization parametersCreate and manage usersCreate and alter database objects (such as tables and indexes)Insert and update dataRun SQL queries, and more.
17Identifying an Oracle Database Software Release Version
18Identifying an Oracle Database Software Release Version Major Database Release Number – a general version identifier.Database Maintenance Release Number – some new features may be included in this release.Fusion Middleware Release Number – reflects the release level of the Oracle Application Server (OracleAS).Component-Specific Release Number – different components can have different numbers in this position depending upon things such as component patch sets or interim releases.Platform-Specific Release Number – usually this is a patch set so when different platforms require equivalent software patch sets, this digit will be the same across the platforms.
19Below query of the data dictionary view PRODUCT _COMPONENT _ VERSION will display release information for the current installation of the ORCL database.SELECT *FROM PRODUCT_COMPONENT_VERSION;
20Result of the QueryPRODUCT VERSION STATUS NLSRTL Production Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Production PL/SQL Production TNS for 32-bit Windows: Production
21Database Administrator Account To perform the administrative tasks of an Oracle Database, you need specific privileges within the database and possibly in the operating system of the server on which the database runs.Each DBA in a LINUX or UNIX or Windows environment needs a privileged account. Two special accounts are created as part of every Oracle database – SYS and SYSTEM.
22Database Administrator Account (Cont.) SYS – the SYS account is automatically granted a role named DBA.DBA Role – a role that contains most database system privileges.SYS owns all base tables and views of the database data dictionary.As an individual DBA, you should never directly modify any tables/views owned by SYS.Only DBAs should be able to connect to an Oracle database using the SYS account.SYSTEM – this account is used to create additional tables / views used for database administration.
23Database Administrator Account (Cont.) DBA Role:A predefined DBA role is automatically created with every Oracle Database installation.This role contains most database system privileges.The DBA role should be granted only to actual database administrators.Special administrative privileges:Required for an administrator to perform basic operationsTwo special system privileges: SYSDBA and SYSOPER
24Database Administrator Account (Cont.) System Privileges for;SYSDBAStartup and Shutdown operationsAlter Database (open, mount, back up, etc...)Create DatabaseDrop DatabaseAlter Database ArchivelogAlter Database RecoverRestricted SessionSYSOPERCreate SPFILEAlter Database OPEN/MOUNT/BACKUPAlter Database Recover(Complete recovery only)