2 Our durable planetDo most articles about the environment argue that the future is bright or dark?Does this title suggest that this writer’s attitude might be different?What do you think our planet will be like in 50 years?
3 1. The writer considers that ... The writer lists many environmental problems but then says …Line 9: “The surprise is how good things are, not how bad.”An overall understanding of the passage is also enough to know the answer.D. = CorrectA. smog and global climate change are the worst environmental problems.B. the list of environmental problems is surprisingly long.C. we have worse things to worry about than the environment.D. we should be surprised that the environment is not in worse condition.
4 A. are the result of government regulation. 2. According to paragraph 2, the environmental problems faced by poor countries ...A. are the result of government regulation.B. cannot be solved by democracy.C. can theoretically be overcome.D. are a response to popular pressure.Government regulations and democracy help preserve the environment.Line 20: “That is why today’s environmental problems in poor countries ought, in principle, to be solvable.”“in principle” = theoreticallyC. = Correct
5 B. we keep on finding alternatives. 3. According to paragraph 3, raw materials generally show no sign of running out because ...A. the planet is very big.B. we keep on finding alternatives.C. prices often rise after natural disasters.D. developments have been made in farming technology.Yes, the planet is big, but it is also “finite”. Resources will run out.When resources run short, prices rise so people have …Line 27: “…found ways to use less of the material, or looked for a substitute.”substitute = alternativeB. = Correct
6 A. fears about the environment. 4. In the writer’s view the primary reason people change their behaviour in regard to potential shortages of raw materials is ...A. fears about the environment.B. knowing the planet is a very big place.C. advances in farming technology.D. increases in commodity prices.Line 25: “Each time a material seems to be running short, the price has risen and, … people have sought new sources of supply, found ways to use less of the material, or looked for a substitute.”D. = Correct
7 5. “The same” (line 29) refers to ... A. real prices falling over time.B. raw materials not running out.C. materials running short.D. real prices generally increasing.Line 28: “Thus, prices for energy and minerals have fallen in real terms during the century. The same is true for food.”We’re comparing the real price of food to the real prices of energy and minerals.A. = correct
8 6. Fish is used in paragraph 4 as an example of ... A. a well-protected resource.B. a resource no one takes responsibility for.C. a resource much damaged by pollution.D. a food shared by all of society.Supply and demand and rising prices control the use of some resources but not all.Line 36: “If no one owns a resource, no one has an interest in conserving it. The case of fish is the best example of this.”B. = Correct
9 A. caused by conflicts between commercial and public interests. 7. A main argument in paragraph 4 is that the most difficult environmental problems are ...A. caused by conflicts between commercial and public interests.B. best solved by government intervention.C. caused by air, land or water pollution.D. too costly for governments to deal with.Air, land and water pollution are environmental problems. They are not caused by environmental problems.What’s the cause of these problems?Line 41: (They are) “examples of conflicting corporate and social interests.”A. = Correct
10 8. According to paragraph 5, what has led to improvements in the quality of the environment in some democratic countries.A. Governments have identified the most important issues.B. Voters have worked with the governments.C. Voters and governments have agreed on the necessity for action.D. The worst sources of air pollution have been identified.Line 47: “One an issue has been identified, and voters and governments have become convinced that something ought to be done, something has been done.”C. = Correct
11 9. According to paragraph 5, in wealthy countries ... A. air pollution has been deteriorating for 300 years.B. the state of the environment as a whole has improved in recent years.C. all aspects of air quality have improved in recent decades.D. governments have persuaded people to reduce air pollution from vehicles.Line 46: “Yet, the record in rich countries this century has been good.”There have been improvements, but vehicle emissions is an exception.B. = Correct
12 10. Pollution from petrol has worsened because petrol ... A. demand has grown so fast.B. contains sulphur dioxide.C. consumption is hard to determine.D. contains lead.Line 53: “…vehicle emissions of some pollutants have stayed high as petrol consumption has grown faster than the effect of tighter controls.”Controls are better but people are using more petrol.A. = Correct
13 11. In paragraph 6, the writer suggests that strong economic growth ... A. cannot solve environmental problems.B. increases environmental problems.C. allows countries to clean up their environment.D. is liked by environmentalists.Line 61: “In rich countries, where great economic growth has occurred, the environment has become healthier.”Think of the overall message of the passage.C. = Correct
14 12. According to paragraph 6, in poor countries ... A. environmentalists have identified most problems.B. environmental problems cannot be solved.C. there has been less growth in pollution.D. pollution represents a growing danger.“B” goes against the message of the passage and “C” doesn’t make sense.Line 61: “It is in poor countries, where economic growth has been slow, that air and water pollution is an increasing hazard to health.”hazard = dangerD. = Correct
15 A. eliminating tax benefits for the mining industry 13. According to the writer, which of the following is probably NOT an effective measure for reducing pollution?A. eliminating tax benefits for the mining industryB. increasing the cost of water to consumersC. banning some cars some of the timeD. installing anti-pollution equipment“A” and “D” probably are effective.Line 71: “… when Mexico tried to deal with air pollution by banning certain types of cars on particular days of the week, many people reacted by buying a second, older (and more polluting) car …”C. = Correct
16 A. where there is too much corruption. 14. Mexico is used by the writer in paragraph 7 as an example of a country ….A. where there is too much corruption.B. where there are too many tax benefits.C. which has dealt with air pollution well.D. which found it difficult to improve air quality.Line 71: “… when Mexico tried to deal with air pollution by banning certain types of cars on particular days of the week, many people reacted by buying a second, older (and more polluting) car …”This was an honest attempt to improve air quality, but was it successful?D. = Correct
17 15. The phrase “scourges of the environment” (lines 79-80) means ... A. friends of the environment.B. enemies of the environment.C. protection for the environment.D. different aspects of the environment.Line 78: “… eliminating tax benefits … Subsidies and tax breaks are scourges of the environment world-wide.”How does he feel about them if he wants to eliminate them?B. = Correct
18 A. They are rarely democratic. B. Companies are corrupt. 16. In the opinion of the writer, which is the biggest problem faced by poorer countries in their struggle against pollution.A. They are rarely democratic.B. Companies are corrupt.C. No one wants to be green.D. Green policies increase unemployment.Line 89: “…problems are more political than economic. Few poor countries are fully-developed democracies …”There are other problems but we’re looking for the biggest one.A. = Correct
19 17. Japan is cited primarily as an example of a country... Line 92: “The improvement in rich countries … growth of democracy… . Japan, for example, was hit by a series of pollution disasters … which gave rise to citizens’ protest movements, and then, to new laws …”Why did Japan pass new environmental laws?D. = CorrectA. which experienced many pollution disasters.B. with an imperfect democratic government.C. with an authoritarian government.D. where democracy fostered anti-pollution laws.
20 18. What would be a suitable alternative title for this article? A. The dangers of pollutionB. Environmental realities: rich and poorC. Pollution in poor countriesD. A century of continuing pollutionWhat is the first half of the passage about?What is the second half of the passage about?B. = Correct