Presentation on theme: "Al-Haadi The Tenth Imam By A.S. Hashim. MD. In this Slide Show Lineage Al-Haadi’s Early childhood The Golden Chain of Narration The network Contemporary."— Presentation transcript:
In this Slide Show Lineage Al-Haadi’s Early childhood The Golden Chain of Narration The network Contemporary Schools of Thought Al-Haadi’s Person The year 232H Al-Mutawak’kil In Samurra 236H Shrines of Karbala and Najaf: 247H Weakening of the Khilaafah Al-Haadi Dies
Lineage FatherAl-Jawaad MotherSamaanah Al-Haadi Benu Hashim Ahlul Bayt Progeny of Ammar ibn Yasir
Al-Haadi’s Early childhood Ali Al-Haadi was born in the year 214H Born in Surba, a suburb of Medina built by Imam Al-Kadhim Al-Haadi grew up in a pious environment noted for its holiness, virtue and piety He was cared for with love and tenderness.
Al-Haadi in his Boyhood Ibn Dulf said he had heard Al- Jawaad saying, “The Imam after me is my son Ali, his directives and sayings are the same as mine, and to obey him is to obey me. After him the Imamah will be in his son, Al-Hasan.”
Al-Haadi in his Boyhood Like his forefathers Al-Haadi displayed a remarkable capacity to learn and a very sharp memory. Like his forefathers Al-Haadi displayed a remarkable capacity to learn and a very sharp memory. By an early age Al-Haadi had: memorized the Holy Quran learned the meaning of its various parts, the historical background of some Ayahs, and many of their intricacies. many of their intricacies. Al-Haadi loved the explanations his father Al- Jawaad gave
Al-Haadi in his Boyhood Imam Al-Jawaad was requested by Khalifa Mu’tasim to leave Medina and move to Baghdad Al-Jawaad left for Baghdad along with his wife Umm Al-Fadhl, He kept the rest of his family including Al-Haadi in Medina. He left after designating Al-Haadi as the subsequent Imam and entrusting him with the Corpus of Knowledge. He left after designating Al-Haadi as the subsequent Imam and entrusting him with the Corpus of Knowledge. The family missed him very much and so did his devotees and students.
Al-Haadi in his Boyhood Al-Haadi in his Boyhood Al-Jawaad told his son Al-Haadi: When you become the Imam you will be directed by two ways as all the Imams including myself have”: 1.The first way is by an Unerring Inspiration. 2.The second is by way of the Al-Muhad'dith. Then he added, “Son, our answers to people's inquiries come from: 1.Our studies of the Corpus of Knowledge. 1.Our studies of the Corpus of Knowledge. 2.By way of inner inspiration, as if there is a compeller within us giving the answer. The Imam's inspiration is accurate and unerring, it is correct. 3.Al-Muhad'dith, we may hear his answer but see no one. 3.Al-Muhad'dith, we may hear his answer but see no one. When we reiterate what we had heard the answer is amazingly clear, to the point and correct.” When we reiterate what we had heard the answer is amazingly clear, to the point and correct.”
Corpus of Knowledge Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: 1. Quran in chorological order 2. Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) 3. Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) 4. Ah’kaam 5. Al-Jafr a.White Jafr: Prophets and early times b.Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam
In his Boyhood Al ‑ Jawaad advised his son Al-Haadi: Even though you are very young your mind is superior to the minds of most people As much as I hate it I have to go to Baghdad soon as Khalifa Al- Mu'tasim had requested. If I come to the end of my life, your duty as an Imam will begin It will be as difficult for you on account of your age as it was for me. It will be as difficult for you on account of your age as it was for me. You may have to initially prove your mettle to scholars and others. You may have to initially prove your mettle to scholars and others. Remember, Allah will support you with His Divine Light.
The Golden Chain of Narration Thousands of Hadiths were narrated and quoted by Ahlul Bayt Each Imam said, "My Hadith is the Hadith of my father, and his is the Hadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated the Hadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)." This is called the Golden Chain of Narration. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science. These Hadiths were of immense importance, since they corrected the inaccuracies and set right the contaminations which had crept into this science.
The Golden Chain of Narration Each quoting his father and forefathers up to the Prophet Ali, quoting Muhammad (pbuh) Al-Hasan and Al-Husain quoting Ali Zainul Abideen quoting Al-Husain Al-Baaqir quoting Zainul Abideen Al-Saadiq quoting Al-Baaqir Al-Kadhim Quoting Al-Saadiq Al-Ridha Quoting Al-Kadhim Al-Jawaad Quoting Al-Ridha Al-Haadi Quoting Al-Jawaad
Golden Chain of Narration: (so far) The Golden Chain of Narration
By the age of about 10 years Al-Jawaad advised his son: Benu Abbas are frightened of the advent of Al-Mahdi I think Benu Abbas will do their best to interrupt the line of heritage before his birth. I think Benu Abbas will do their best to interrupt the line of heritage before his birth. Benu Abbas are fully aware of the Prophet's Hadiths regarding Al-Mahdi, and how he had said: Al-Mahdi will appear to fill the earth with Al-Mahdi will appear to fill the earth with Justice and Virtue as it will have been full of Evilness
The network The Shi'a were all over by this time with many: Ministers called Naqeeb and Representatives called Wakeel These collected Zakat and Khums funds The representatives were in Egypt, Iraq, Persia, Yemen, and Syria forming a vast and formidable network. The representatives were in Egypt, Iraq, Persia, Yemen, and Syria forming a vast and formidable network. The funds were distributed to the poor and needy, and to the Syeds according to their status. The funds were distributed to the poor and needy, and to the Syeds according to their status.
Ismah Emphasized Ismah: Ayah of Tat’heer: Surah 33 : Ayah 33. Ahlul Bayt are to be obeyed, not just revered; Imamah: was of immense importance. A designated Imam was Ma'soom, i.e., safeguarded by Allah from : 1. Religious error, 2. sin, and 3. forgetfulness. Those who ignore the Imamah will have ignored a basic pillar in their faith.
Contemporary Schools of Thought Accepted and were on the ascendancy: 1. The Shi'a (Imamah-Asserters), 2. Mu'tazila, 3. Al-Hanafi 4. Al-Maaliki 5. Al-Shafi’i 6. As‘haab Al-Hadith Being on decline and in disfavor: 1. Khariji, 2. Jabriah, 3. Qadariyah, 4. schools of Ibn Abbas, 5. schools of Ibn Omar, 6. Murji'ah,
Al-Haadi’s Person Appearance: Al ‑ Haadi was handsome, swarthy in complexion, an appearance commanding high esteem. Similarities with his forefathers: He showed similar personal traits to those of his forefathers: He loved to perform Salats frequently especially at night He used to recite the Holy Quran with a melody that appealed to everyone's heart He used to say Du'aas often, not only his own but those of the Prophet (pbuh), Zainul Abideen and others who preceded him. Not unusual he would be in Ih'yaa and Tahajjud all night, with coarse clothes on and the minimum means of comfort.
Discourses Discourse Capacity: People loved Imam Al- Haadi and were very attracted by his discussions. Discourse Capacity: People loved Imam Al- Haadi and were very attracted by his discussions. Al-Haadi used to hold discussions in: Masjid Al ‑ Nabawi, Surba, a suburb of Medina, and Mecca during Haj time. Surba was built by Imam Al-Kadhim He freely answered any question posed by his devotees or those wanting to learn.
Discourses Al ‑ Haadi was always ready to counsel, give edicts, enlighten, or quote the Hadith. Al ‑ Haadi was always ready to counsel, give edicts, enlighten, or quote the Hadith. He was not hampered nor hindered during the early years of his Imamah His discourses were lively about many Islamic sciences: be it the Sunnah, Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh or Ah'kaam such as Halal and Haram. His discourses were lively about many Islamic sciences: be it the Sunnah, Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh or Ah'kaam such as Halal and Haram. As his forefathers before him, he understood the Sunnah best and taught it in its pure form.
Character Ethics and Character: He was a very kind person, known for his compassion. Ethics and Character: He was a very kind person, known for his compassion. His courtesy and affection were well known to all. The needy and indigent flocked to him. He was ever helpful Work: Al-Haadi often worked with his hands as had his forefathers before him. Work: Al-Haadi often worked with his hands as had his forefathers before him. In Medina by himself, the work was regarded as Ibadah In Samur’raa, used to go with his son to the farm together Be it in the farm or orchard they used the shovel and sweat it out. Piety: He was the embodiment of high character and virtue. The outstanding merit (Al ‑ Fadhl) and perfection of character were gathered in him.
Restrictions During the later period of his life Imam Al-Haadi had to communicate with his devotees mainly by writing, since: He was detained in Samur'raa for many years (18 years), and His millions of devotees were spread all over the Islamic Ummah. His millions of devotees were spread all over the Islamic Ummah. When in Samur'raa Imam Al-Haadi did not have free contact with his devotees. He argued with: the Zandeeqs (the socially abhorred heretics), the Jabriah and Qadariyah, and was Fighting off the Ghulaat (Exaggerationists) and exposing their deception and falsehood, and warning people about them
Al-Haadi took with him: Imam Al-Haadi was very keen about the Corpus of Knowledge and their immense value. On leaving Medina to Samur’raa, he made sure these books were with him When at one time his house in Samur'raa was searched by agents of Khalifa Al-Mutawak'kil, they saw mainly: Qurans, books of Du'aas, and the volumes of the Corpus of Knowledge.
The year 232H Al-Hasan Al-Askari is born: Year 232H: A son is born to Al-Haadi in Medina. Year 232H: A son is born to Al-Haadi in Medina. He received superb care by his family, and Raised under the exclusive tutelage of his father Al- Haadi. Raised under the exclusive tutelage of his father Al- Haadi. Al-Hasan Al-Askari showed signs of high intelligence early on, and he learned at the hands of his father: The Quran, Tafseer, Hadith, Fiqh, Sunnah or other sciences. Fiqh, Sunnah or other sciences.
The year 232H Al-Mutawak'kil becomes Khalifa in 232H Al-Mutawak'kil was in prison, but through complicity and collusion with the Turkic slaves he was able to maneuver the Khilaafah in his favor. Once as Khalifa, Al-Mutawak'kil sided with As'haab Al-Hadith and they influenced him greatly. Once as Khalifa, Al-Mutawak'kil sided with As'haab Al-Hadith and they influenced him greatly. As'haab Al-Hadith were given a free hand not only to enforce their beliefs but also to combat other Islamic movements.
Al-Mutawak’kil Al-Mutawak’kil ordered the following: All non-Muslims to wear an identifying sign on their garments. Non-Muslims could not hold any position or status in the Imperial secretariat. The tombs [mainly tomb-stones] of non-Muslims were to be razed to the ground level. The installation of Al-Mutawak'kil was a major setback to the Alawi, i.e.: the Imamiyah-Shi'a and the Mu'tazila
Summons to Imam Al-Mahdi Year 236H: Al-Haadi was to move to Samur'raa, along with his family, servants, and attendants. 1.The letter of request was very polite 2.Al-Mutawak'kil's summons was sent with a military contingency of 300 under the leadership of Ibn Al- Hirthama. It was 4th year of his Khilaafah, Al-Mutawak'kil: 1.He had already decreed many oppressive measures; 2.His rule was vicious, brutal, and tyrannical.
In Samur’raa 236H Al-Haadi was about 22 years old One reporter claims Al-Mutawak'kil received Al-Haadi with great show of respect, and provided him with a furnished house in Samur’raa. Other reporters claim Al-Mutawak'kil did not receive Al-Haadi the first night: Therefore Al-Haadi and family had to stay in an inn used for travelers, called Khan Al- Sa'aleek.
In Samur’raa 236H and after Al-Haadi was detained and put under surveillance As disturbing as this was, Al-Haadi never complained, nor protested During his detention Imam Al-Haadi: had few people to visit him, He spent much of his time in prayer, reading Du'aas, and tutoring his children He often told his children of the birth of Al-Mahdi, and Benu Abbas trying to prevent it, since they were frightened of his advent.
Builds a House Builds a house but with a grave dug up in the main room. Visitation of the loyalists and seekers of knowledge increase gradually By now the surveillance is eased: The Khalifa’s chief of protocol was to call on Al-Haadi twice a day (some say twice a week) to detect any suspect movement against the throne.
A Year Later: 237H Fearing ominous consequences of gatherings of the Shi'a in Karbala or Najaf, Al-Mutawak'kil orders the following: 1.Banning visitation to Karbala, with a warning of death penalty. 2.Taxation of those who visited the shrines of Karbala or Najaf. 3.Razing the shrines in Karbala and Najaf, destroying them to the ground level. 4.To plough the surrounding land of such tombs and bring it under cultivation. The Edict could not be carried out because of resistance
But in the mean time Al-Mutawak'kil confiscates Fadak and. Warns inhabitants of Al-Hijaz not to communicate with the Alawi or to support them financially. Warns inhabitants of Al-Hijaz not to communicate with the Alawi or to support them financially. The Alawi are more or less deprived of their necessary livelihood. The drastic measures proved a failure, the Wikaalah (Shi’a administration) continued to work discretely. Al-Haadi continued his communications with his adherents secretly, receiving Khums and other taxes.
In the meantime Al-Haadi continued to see visitors in quest of knowledge, surveillance notwithstanding. He used to visit Majlis at various times, help the needy and disadvantaged, help the widows and poor at night. help the widows and poor at night. give money at night to families in need Along with Al-Askari, Al-Haadi used to work in his field, as he had done in Medina. He valued such work as an expression of Ibadah.
Shrines of Karbala and Najaf: 247H After 13 years of oppressive rule, Al-Mutawak'kil decrees for the 2 nd time: No visitation to Karbala and Najaf Destroy and raze Karbala and Najaf shrines Dig out the graves, and Plough the surrounding land and water it from the Euphrates. There were vehement objections to this order with petitions from Basrah, Kufa, and much of Iraq.
Shrines Destroyed: 247H After the first and second attempts to destroy the shrines had failed: The task to do so was given to the military and was carried out. Much blood shed took place Soon after, Al-Mutawak’kil is killed by his own son Al-Mun’tasir Al-Mun’tasir is the Khalifa, to the relief of everyone
Al-Mun’tasir: Year 247H As a Khalifa Al-Mun'tasir revokes all the rulings of his father Al-Mutawak’kil Al-Mun'tasir accomplishes the following in fast order: Stop persecuting the Shi'a and others. Re-institute visitation to Karbala and Najaf, Return the Aw'qaaf (Trust) to Benu Talib, Return Fadak to the progeny of Al-Hasan and Al- Husain, and Stop the campaign of harassments against the Shi'a communities.
Weakening of the Khilaafah Khilaafah at its height used to be the epitome of power Khilaafah had deteriorated by now to be a medium for intrigue and conspiracy at the hands of the Turkic slaves. The powerful among the salves were Waseef and Bogha.
Weakening of the Khilaafah Khilaafah becomes very weak as the poet eloquently expressed: Khilaafah becomes very weak as the poet eloquently expressed: The Khalifa is in a cage, at the mercy of the slaves, And just as a parrot does, he echoes what to him they say. بين وصيفٍ وبغا كما تقول الببغا خليفة في قفصٍ يقول ما قالا له
During Al-Haadi’s last few Years Quick succession of weak Khalifas Each ruling for a short period then killed or demoted by the Turkic conspirators Anxiety is pervasive but noticeable Al-Bukhari has been active for many years to verify the authenticity of the plethora of Hadiths Muslim Al-Nishaapori [of Sahih Muslim] was doing the same thing
Contemporary Khalifas Al-Haadi was contemporary to the following Khalifas of Benu Abbas: 1. Al-Ma'Moon (son of Haroon Al- Rashid) 2. Al-Mu'tasim (son of Haroon Al-Rashid) 3. Al-Waathiq (son of Al-Mu'tasim) 4. Al-Mutawak'kil (son of Al-Mu'tasim) 5. Al-Mun'tasir (son of Al-Mutawak'kil) 6. Al-Mus'taeen (son of Al-Mu'tasim) 7. Al-Mu'tazz (son of Al-Mutawak'kil)
AL ‑ HAADI DIES Al-Haadi became sick, he grew weak, and within a few days he died. (It is reported that his condition was caused by poisoning during the Khilaafah of Al-Mu'tazz. Al-Haadi died at a relatively early age of 40, in 254H Al-Haadi was buried in his house after his son, Al-Hasan Al- Askari, performed the Janaaza Salat Dignitaries, government people, devotees, students, and just about everyone in Samur'raa attended the Janaaza Prayer. Before his death, Al-Haadi gave the custody of the Corpus of Knowledge to Al-Askari, along with befitting advice
Sample Dialogue Imam Al-Haadi's answer about Tawhid [Allah's Oneness]: “Allah has not ceased to exist, and He still exists. Allah caused whatever He wanted to come into existence. There is neither resistance to Allah's Decree nor revision to Allah's Ruling. They go astray those who try to decipher Him. Short is the sight of those who want to see Him. Have perished all descriptions of the describers of Him, and have waned the words of liars about Him. Allah is beyond sight. Amazing is His affair. Sublime is His station. Allah is at such a High Status that it cannot be defined, and in a manner where no eye can take a glance at Him….. لم يزل الله موجوداً ثم كون ما أراد، لا راد لقضائِه، ولا معقب لحكمه، تاهت أوهام المتوهمين، وقصر طرف الطارفين، وتلاشت أوصاف الواصفين، واضمحلت أقاويل المطلين عن الدرك العجيب شأنه، أو الوقوع بالبلوغ على علو مكانه، فهو بالموضع الذي لايتناهى وبالمكان الذي لم يقع عليه فيه عيون إشارة ولا عباره، هيهات هيهات… لم يزل الله موجوداً ثم كون ما أراد، لا راد لقضائِه، ولا معقب لحكمه، تاهت أوهام المتوهمين، وقصر طرف الطارفين، وتلاشت أوصاف الواصفين، واضمحلت أقاويل المطلين عن الدرك العجيب شأنه، أو الوقوع بالبلوغ على علو مكانه، فهو بالموضع الذي لايتناهى وبالمكان الذي لم يقع عليه فيه عيون إشارة ولا عباره، هيهات هيهات…
Select Sayings of Al-Haadi Allah Almighty made the present life a sequence of testing, and the next life the abode of the outcome. And He made the trials of this life a measure for the reward of the next life, and this recompense is the substitute for that test. Envy razes the reward for good deeds and brings despise. Insolence averts from seeking knowledge and calls for disdain and ignorance. Being stingy is a vile character, and being greedy is of a bad nature. Mockery is a humor of the fool and an act of the unlearned. The inflexible causes one to have little and leads him to be loathed. Better than a good deed is the person who performs it. Lovelier than an oration is the person who says it. Superior to knowledge is the person who displays it. Worse than evil is the person who brings it forth. More terrifying than horror is to the person who bears it.
Select sayings of Al-Haadi II Arguing for the sake of argument spoils an intimate friendship and destroys relationship. The least effect thereof is trying to conquer one another, which is a primary cause of dissociation. The person who obeys the Creator is not bothered about the discontent of people. The person who feels secure from Allah's plan deems himself haughty, thus the Divine Decree befalls on him..... Though unjust, a forbearing person is about to efface his injustice by his patience, while a foolish person having a right is about to extinguish the light of his right by his foolishness.
Sample Advice The person who gathers for you his friendship and advice, gather for him your obedience. And the person who displays little self- respect do not feel secure from his malice. And the person who glorifies himself, many will be irritated with him. People —in this life— are esteemed by wealth, while —in the Hereafter— they are esteemed by their previous deeds. The person who gathers for you his friendship and advice, gather for him your obedience. And the person who displays little self- respect do not feel secure from his malice. And the person who glorifies himself, many will be irritated with him. People —in this life— are esteemed by wealth, while —in the Hereafter— they are esteemed by their previous deeds. من جمع لك ودَّه ورأيه فاجمع له طاعتك، ومن هانت عليه نفسه فلا تأمن شره، ومن رضي عن نفسه كثر الساخطون عليه، والناس في الدنيا بالأموال وفي الآخرة بالأعمال من جمع لك ودَّه ورأيه فاجمع له طاعتك، ومن هانت عليه نفسه فلا تأمن شره، ومن رضي عن نفسه كثر الساخطون عليه، والناس في الدنيا بالأموال وفي الآخرة بالأعمال
Translation of Ziyarah (Visitation) O Allah bless Ali ibn Muhammad, the successor of the previous successors, the Imam of the Pious, the Vicegerent of the Imams of religion, the decisive argument over the created beings. O Allah just as Thou made him the Beacon to give light to the believers, to give them the glad tidings of Thy recompense, To warn them about Thy punishment, to put the awe of Thy Might in their hearts, to make mention of Thy verses, to prescribe what Thou have made lawful, to proscribe what Thou have made unlawful, To make known Thy laws and what Thou have made obligatory, to encourage people to worship Thee, obey Thee, and not to transgress the limits laid down by Thee, So, Bless him and send more blessings than Thou had conferred on any of Thy representatives, and on the progeny of Thy Prophets, O Lord of the Worlds!
In Conclusion Al-Haadi: Outline of his Life Discussed in this slide show: Lineage Al-Haadi’s Early childhood The network Contemporary Schools of Thought Al-Haadi’s Person The year 232H Al-Mutawak’kil In Samurra 236H Shrines of Karbala and Najaf: 247H Weakening of the Khilaafah Al-Haadi Dies
For Details Go to: Islamicbooks.info then choose: Series of Islamic Books: Life of Ahlul Bayt Vol. III
Be in Allah’s Care Thank you and May God Bless you. Dr. A.S. Hashim