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Presentation on theme: "DDC – PROFESSIONAL TRUCK DRIVER Presented By: Les Nugen."— Presentation transcript:


2 Housekeeping Items Should take about 4 ½ hours Breaks as needed Restrooms located? Registration – Remove registration cards from center of handbook – Complete ALL sections NEATLY – Unreadable = no credit!

3 Course Goal Present and review information on how to improve your defensive driving skills – skills that may save your life and help avoid collisions and violations

4 Question How many people do you think were killed in traffic collisions in the U.S. last year? – 41,300

5 Question How many people do you think are injured in motor vehicle collisions every year? – 2,200,000

6 Question How much do you think these collisions cost? – $181,500,000,000

7 This is almost 113 people killed per day and 6,027 injured at a cost per day of $497,300,000

8 How many truck drivers are killed every year in CMV collisions? Between !!! Trucking has the most occupational related deaths of any industry!

9 Commercial Vehicle Stats CMV were involved in only 3.8% of all motor vehicle collisions, but 8% of all CMV collisions result in death.

10 Collisions Has anyone here been involved in a collision? Was anyone hurt? How much did it cost? – The actual costs are usually much more than just physical damage, liability, and cargo

11 AMOUNT OF LOSS Ope rati ng Rati o$100$200$300$400$500$600$700$800$900$1,000$2,000 99%10,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,00070,00080,00090,000100,000200,000 98%5,00010,00015,00020,00025,00030,00035,00040,00045,00050,000100,000 97%3,3336,66710,00013,33316,66720,00023,33326,66730,00033,33366,667 96%2,5005,0007,50010,00012,50015,00017,50020,00022,50025,00050,000 95%2,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,00014,00016,00018,00020,00040,000 94%1,6673,3345,0016,6688,33510,00211,66913,33615,00316,67033,340 93%1,4292,8584,2875,7107,1458,57410,00311,43212,86114,29028,580 92%1,2502,5003,7505,0006,2507,5008,75010,00011,25012,50025,000

12 What is Defensive Driving? Driving to save Lives, Time, and Money in spite of the conditions around you and the actions of others

13 Rule #1 For Today NO COMPLAINING! – You cannot control the actions of others – only yourself – We are here to talk about how to avoid collisions – IN SPITE OF THE ACTIONS OF OTHERS – Complaining will not accomplish this goal

14 Rule #2 For the Road Assume all other drivers are completely INSANE!

15 What is an Accident? “an unfortunate event resulting from unavoidable causes? To call a vehicle collision an “accident” is not really accurate – Collisions are usually avoidable by one or more of the drivers involved. – Collisions can be prevented

16 What is a Preventable Collision? “a collision in which the driver failed to do everything reasonable to avoid it” Key word being REASONABLE!

17 Contributing Factors All factors or causes of collisions can be put into one of three categories: – Driver – Vehicle – Conditions

18 What Can You Control? Driver & Vehicle Conditions are outside of your control – E.g. weather, construction, OTHER DRIVERS

19 Preventability Over 80% of all collisions can be attributed to driver error Translation – over 80% of collisions could be prevented by the person behind the wheel

20 Concentrate on Your Driving You make approximately 180 decisions per minute while driving Doing other tasks just adds to this total If you make the right decision 99% of the time, you are making 108 mistakes per hour! In a ten hour run that is 1080 mistakes !

21 DDC Collision Prevention Formula Recognize the hazard Understand the defense Act correctly, in time

22 How to Anticipate & Recognize Driving Hazards The ‘What If Strategy”

23 Let’s watch a video It summarizes the points we have discussed so far, and focuses more on preventability of accidents

24 Session Two: Professional Drivers’ Characteristics

25 Quick Review What were the three categories that causes of collisions fit into from section one? – Driver – Vehicle – Conditions This session will focus on YOU the driver

26 Characteristics of a Professional Driver ã Courteous ã Attentive -“Senses” what others will do…or not do ã Does not make risky moves ã Allows a “safety cushion” around the truck ã Good judgment & skills ã Desire to improve

27 Characteristics of an Unprofessional Driver ã Tailgates and intimidates ã Cuts people off ã Changes lanes unnecessarily ã Excessive speed ã Rude, vulgar on CB to other drivers ã Thinks the bigger vehicle will win

28 What Should a Pro do to Improve Driving Skills? Keep up-to-date on traffic laws Review defensive driving skills & techniques Listen to experiences of other drivers, and try to learn from them Try to identify bad unsafe habits and correct them

29 What Type of Knowledge Must You Have? Rules of the road (federal & state) Safe/proper vehicle operations Transportation paperwork Basic truck mechanics Load securement Trip planning CDL requirements

30 What is Foresight? That “sixth sense” that drivers develop through experience The ability to anticipate what can happen down the road Translation: Knowing when another driver is going to do something stupid and dangerous!

31 Use Your Biggest Advantage CMV drivers sit up much higher than most drivers This allows you to see further down the road Combine this advantage with proper scanning techniques to detect potential hazards – and be prepared to deal with them

32 Don’t Give Up Your Advantage Following too closely to another truck takes away your sight advantage! When you follow too close you are letting the driver of the truck in front of you drive your truck for you

33 Examples of Good Judgment? Passing when it is safe and legal Driving according to the conditions around you Not taking unnecessary risks

34 What are some driver conditions that may affect driving ability? Stress Emotions Attitude Fatigue Physical health – sickness, medications, etc Vision & hearing Mobility

35 Take a Pre-Trip Mental Inventory Ask yourself, how do I feel? – Tired? Tense? Sick? Fine? What problems are you aware of that will be part of the trip? – Construction zones, rush hour, shipper/receiver Take these factors into consideration during the day

36 Driver Factors are Divided into Two Categories Physical Mental

37 Causes of Physical & Emotional Stress Work schedule Family problems Work problems – dispatchers, safety directors Road/weather conditions Traffic – other drivers Vehicle conditions – breakdowns, etc.

38 What Types of Drivers Do You Encounter? Tony Stewart – aggressive, moving in & out Grandpa Simpson – nowhere to go, nothing to do “I don’t want to follow the big truck, but don’t want them behind me either” Guinness world record holder for the shortest following distance Professional

39 Stress Reducers Relaxation techniques Allow extra time for unexpected Take a break Ignore other drivers attitudes Let dangerous drivers get ahead of you Balance work and personal life LAUGH IT OFF

40 Fatigue Caused by stress, lack of quality sleep, too many hours behind the wheel, changing schedules, etc. Two periods when most collisions occur: – Between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. – Between 2 p.m. and 4 p.m. These are your body’s natural down times

41 How to Reduce Fatigue Get quality sleep – At least 7 hours per day – Block out light, noise, etc. Plan sleep time into your trips Avoid heavy meals before bedtime Get regular exercise - maintain good health

42 Physical Requirements Vision – 20/40 in both eyes – Peripheral vision at least 70 degrees Blood pressure – 140/90 max Hearing – forced whisper at 5 feet No insulin dependent diabetic condition No loss of foot, leg, hand, or arm

43 Session Three – Driving Large Vehicles

44 Session Three Topics The other controllable factor – VEHICLE Vehicle inspections Blind spots Effects of freight on handling Stopping distance & following distance

45 Pre-Trip Inspections Consists of more than – the truck starts, it has fuel, and oil pressure…it shifts into gear and drives. You are a key component in any company maintenance program & safety program Thorough Pre-Trips help cut down on breakdowns, collisions, and out of service violations

46 Driver Responsibility Drivers are required under to be satisfied that the vehicle is in safe operating condition before driving the vehicle

47 Most Common Out Of Service Violations Brakes Lights Tires

48 In-route Inspections Normal load – every 150 miles or 3 hours Hazmat load- every 100 miles or 2 hours Check the following: – Oil/water – Brakes – Tires – Cargo(chains, straps, tarps) – Yourself

49 While Driving Listen – strange or new noises Smell – unusual odors Feel – changes in handling, vibrations Observe – gauges, parts (lights, turn signals, cargo securement, etc)

50 Post-Trip Should be thorough so that mechanics can be notified of needed repairs Should complete the DVIR every day you are on duty

51 What Type of CMV Do You Drive? Cab-over or Conventional Straight truck or combinations vehicle Single or double axle Single, double, or triple trailers Tank, flat, reef, or dry van 28, 48, 53, or 57’ trailer length 13’ 6”, 14’ trailer height

52 Many Possibilities Different types of vehicles have different handling capabilities and characteristics Even different vehicles of the same type will handle differently Keep this in mind if changing vehicles The same vehicle will handle differently with different loads

53 Truck vs. Car How is driving a big truck different from driving a car? – Size – Clearance – Turning radius – Stopping distance – Blind spots

54 Blind Spots Where are your blind spots? – Front – Behind – Sides

55 How Can You Compensate for Blind Spots? Lean and Look Additional mirrors – fender mount, convex, etc. Proper mirror adjustment Vehicle placement/positioning – Lane choice – Lane positioning – Change of speed

56 Judging Vehicle Clearance Road signs – May be inaccurate – May be missing Must be sure you can fit – Slow down until safe – Stop if necessary

57 Right Turns Anticipate the turn Check behind – watch for right turn squeeze Use turn signal Get set up properly – block with rear of trailer Try not to cross into other lanes Watch in mirrors for cars in the way

58 Left Turns Anticipate the turn Use your turn signal at least 100 feet before Keep wheels pointed straight Wait until safe to proceed - do not assume that traffic will stop once you begin turn If multiple lanes, get into far right lane – better view of cars beside you


60 Driving Through Curves Entrance/exit ramps are where most rollovers occur Check your speedometer to KNOW how fast you are going Slow down BEFORE you enter curve Should not apply brakes while driving through curve Should be slow enough to accelerate through

61 Poor Perception People are poor judges of distance and speed As your trip length gets longer, your speed perception gets worse You may think you have slowed down enough, but may be going to fast to make turn CHECK YOU SPEEDOMETER to be sure

62 How Many Feet Does it Take You to Stop? It depends: – Weight – Load – Road conditions – Reaction time – Type of vehicle – Tires – Vehicle condition

63 Perception Time Time it takes for you to see and recognize that the hazard exists – Estimated to be 1.75 seconds – Varies from person to person – Fatigue increases the time

64 Reaction Time/Distance Time it takes from when you recognize a hazard to when you get your foot on the brake Average reaction time is ¾ of second Reaction distance is calculated by taking the first digit of your speed and adding it to your speed – E.g. 20 mph = 22 feet 35 mph = 38 feet 60 mph = 66 feet

65 Actual Braking Distance Includes air brake lag – ½ second for air brake lag – Distance will be 2/3 of reaction distance E.g. 20 mph = 15 feet –30 mph = 20 feet

66 Stopping Distance Stopping Distance = Perception + Reaction distance + air brake lag distance + actual braking distance

67 Car vs. Truck Stopping Distance AUTO: MPHPerceptionReactionBrakeTotal feet to feet to feet TRUCK: MPHPerceptionReactionBrakeTotal feet feet feet feet

68 Do You Have Room to Stop? At 20 mph a car stops 10 feet faster At 55 mph a car stops 111 feet faster At 65 mph a car stops 209 feet faster


70 Sad reality of the rear-end crash Who usually is riding in the back of a vehicle? CHILDREN 8 children killed every week in truck/car accidents

71 Remember Why We Are Here To learn to avoid collisions in spite of the actions, mistakes, and stupidity of others If someone cuts in front of you give them room Do not force yourself into making a emergency maneuver due to lack of time and space to move Drive defensively not offensively

72 Remember That Many Factors Affect Stopping Distance Road conditions – Ice or snow can more than double stopping dist. Your alertness – slower perception & reaction time increases stopping distance Load type/placement – Loaded tractors stop faster than empty – Bobtailing has special limitations

73 Session Four – Lane Management

74 Four Outcomes of a Pass Successful pass Head-on collision Run-off-the-road collision Sideswipe collision

75 What Should You do Before You Pass Determine if it is safe Determine if it is legal Determine if it is necessary

76 A Word Of Caution DO NOT let your following distance diminish when scanning before a pass Your attention shifts to other areas and you may lose track of the vehicle in front of you Can force yourself into an unsafe maneuver if vehicle in front slows or stops

77 Where Is It Not Legal to Pass No-passing zones School zones Within 100 feet of RR crossing Within 100 feet of intersection In tunnels or within 100 feet 100 feet before a toll booth Construction zones

78 Watch Video Lets watch a video that discusses different scenarios involving lane management and ways to avoid a collision

79 Multilane Roads Requires increased concentration and scanning techniques Watch ahead, behind, on both sides Entrance/exit ramps Converging and expanding lane width/numbers Increased awareness and identification skills

80 Managing Multi-lanes Adjust speed to traffic flow – but not over speed limit Avoid frequent lane changes Avoid tailgating Stay right – this gives you the breakdown lane as an out Try not to get boxed in – leave an out

81 Head-on Collisions Many reasons why a vehicle may be in your lane – Loss of control – Inattention – Fell asleep – Passing – Emergency maneuver

82 How to Avoid the Head-on Know the five R’s – R ead the road ahead – R educe your speed – Move to the R ight – never go left – R ide off to far right of lane or shoulder Don’t skid out of control - R e-align your vehicle


84 Split-Second Decisions You will be faced with some difficult decisions with little time to react You may have to hit a fixed object to avoid the head-on – e.g. guardrail, ditch, etc. If you must hit something – try to hit at an angle (glancing blow) – This lowers the force of impact – Every inch is a potential life saver

85 Emergency Stops If you must make an emergency stop – Turn on four way flashers – Pull off as far as possible – Place warning devices within 10 minutes Turn to page 46 for instructions on placing warning devices on different types of roads

86 Session Five – Driving Conditions

87 Out of Your Control In this session, we will discuss the third category of factors – Other Conditions These are the factors in the driving environment that are out of your control

88 Uncontrollable Factors Light – too much or too little Weather – rain, snow, sleet, wind, etc. Road – shape, surface, construction Traffic – mix, flow, density OTHER DRIVERS

89 Hazards From These Conditions Reduced or limited visibility Reduced or limited traction Reduced or limited space

90 Responses to Hazards The way you respond depends on your experience, attitude, and decision-making ability

91 Handling Visibility Problems Sun glare – sun glasses, sun visor, take a break Headlight glare – look at the white line on side of road

92 Blinded By the Light When you get blinded by headlights, it can take your pupils 4 to 7 seconds to readjust. At 55 mph, you would travel between 360 and 560 feet!

93 See and Be Seen When visibility is reduced – turn on headlights Remember – “parking lights” are made for parking – if you need to turn on any lights go ahead and turn on your headlights

94 Do Not Overdrive Your Lights Properly adjusted headlights only shine about 400 feet on bright. If you are traveling at 55 mph it takes approximately 476 feet to stop. – Translation – if you do not see a hazard at night until it is in your headlight path. You will not be able to stop.

95 Reduced or Limited Traction Can be as a result of poor conditions Can be as a result of poor driving abilities Can be a combination of both

96 Reduced Space City/urban traffic Construction zones Curves, alleys, two lane roads, parking lots Truckstops, docks, etc.

97 Defensive Driving Is Key Tight areas can be frustrating Keep your cool and be patient Always scan the area and be prepared to react

98 Session Six - Backing

99 G.O.A.L Before you start to back up G et O ut A nd L ook

100 Do’s for Backing Do get out and look behind you Do get out and look beside your truck Do look at the surface around you for hole, debris, etc. Do check for proper clearance – Wires, overhead doors, fire escapes, etc. Do use a guide when available

101 More Do’s Do try to back from the driver’s side Do try to avoid backing out onto roadways Do back slowly

102 Do Not’s for Backing Do not be afraid to stop and take a pull up Do not be afraid to get out and take another look Do not continue to back if you cannot see your guide

103 Thank You All For Attending Before we leave Make sure you have turned in the completed registration card

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