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Large Boilover experiments in Japan

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1 Large Boilover experiments in Japan
Hiroshi Koseki National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster, Japan Tomakomai, Japan

2 Abstracts In order to know boilover phenomenon in large tanks, large scale boilover experiments in a 5 m diameter pan using crude oil were conducted. Initial fuel thickness was 0.7m. To know repeatability we tested twice in the same conditions. About 80 minutes after ignition, large boilover was occurred. Radiation from fire increased about twenty times as much as that of steady burnings. Times to boilover were within our expecting which we obtained with smaller pans and other reports.

3 Background Past boilover accidents in Japan
We had twice boilover accidents in Japan Heavy oil C, Yokkaichi,October 15, 1954 (2) Crude oil, Nigata, June 16, 1964 Nigata, June 1964

4 Earthquake damages in Oil facilities
In Japan we have many earthquakes in Japan Sometimes, oil tanks were damaged, and some were caught fires Two Tomakomai fires in 2003 were reported by Mr. Hirai Nigata earthquake damaged tanks and continued more than two weeks in 1964, and made boilover in crude oil tanks

5 Recent Fire Tests in Japan
Joint work among NRIFD, U. Tokyo and Oil company 20m pan fire test Large crude oil fire tests in 20 m pan(1997) Boilover tests(1999) Tests were conducted in Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan 20m pan fire test

6 Kinds of boilover Boilover: Fuel layer thickness is 0.55 m
Clear hot zone (isothermal zone) is made Our target: 1) normal boilover 2) Effects of water existence Water emulsion crude oil was burnt Slopover Frothover Thin-layer boilover: Fuel layer is very thin

7 Mechanism of boilover High temperature zone was made after long burn, and then increase its width, Details were shown in many text books

8 Boilover test #1

9 Boilover test #2

10 1m pan boilover tests were done in NRIFD large test facilities using several oils Crude oil, Heavy oil made boilover

11 1m pan test using Arabian crude oil Hot zone was made in NRIFD

12 Temperature inside the liquid, using kerosene No hot zone was made

13 Fuel property

14 Test pan

15 Temperature measurement Thermocouples were bedded along with pan pole

16 Crude oil Crude oil we used, is equivalent to Arabian light crude oil supplied by Idemitsu Oil Co., which is most popular crude oil. That is, we bought from Idemitsu Hokkaido Refinary, in which large oil tank fires occurred in 2003.

17 Distillation curve equivalent to Arabian light crude oil

18 Summary of test results

19 Results-Radiation

20 Results-temperature along with pan pole (axis)

21 Results-Fuel and water temperature Hot zone was made and its temperature increase

22 Hot zone regression rate, thickness, temperature vs time

23 Conclusion Time to boilover
Time to boilover can be estimated with fuel thickness because hot zone regression rate is known from many our data and real accidents. According to API data, we obtain these lines, and our data were within these lines. Time (hour) Fuel thickness (m)

24 Conclusion About 70 minutes after ignition, we had boilover, and external radiation increased about 22 times as much as steady burning. We measured temperature inside the fuel, and found that there might be three steps 1) no isothermal zone was observed 2) Isothermal zone was made, but not high temperature 3) Then, temperature of isothermal zone increased, and reached water layer

25 Conclusion Our data support results of our small test and other group did Data is open, anybody can use our data, because large boilover test is difficult to do so often Publication: Fire safety Journal vol.41, 2006 Other information is available Contact me,

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