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1 HVAC222 - Oil Oil Characteristics Oil Heat Calculations Oil Characteristics Oil Heat Calculations

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2 Fuel Oil Weight Measured in API Gravity –API = American Petroleum Institute –Ranges from 0 to 99 degrees The lighter the oil, the higher the rating. –20 degrees = 7.77 pounds –40 degrees = 6.87 pounds These are measured with a hydrometer Measured in API Gravity –API = American Petroleum Institute –Ranges from 0 to 99 degrees The lighter the oil, the higher the rating. –20 degrees = 7.77 pounds –40 degrees = 6.87 pounds These are measured with a hydrometer

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3 Viscosity The resistance to flow (thickness of oil) Time required for an oil sample at a given temperature to flow through a fixed restriction. Heavier oils have a higher restriction. As the temperature rises; viscosity goes down. The resistance to flow (thickness of oil) Time required for an oil sample at a given temperature to flow through a fixed restriction. Heavier oils have a higher restriction. As the temperature rises; viscosity goes down.

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4 Viscosity As the temperature drops, viscosity goes up. –An outdoor oil tank needs to be protected from cold as the viscosity can go so far up the oil will not flow through the filter properly. As the temperature drops, viscosity goes up. –An outdoor oil tank needs to be protected from cold as the viscosity can go so far up the oil will not flow through the filter properly.

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5 Flash Point The temperature at which the oil will give off sufficient vapor to support a flash fire (momentary, not combustion). The lowest temperature vapors will ignite in the air when exposed to flame. The maximum safe storage and handling temperature. The temperature at which the oil will give off sufficient vapor to support a flash fire (momentary, not combustion). The lowest temperature vapors will ignite in the air when exposed to flame. The maximum safe storage and handling temperature.

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6 Distillation Range Used as a measurement for lighter oils. It is the temperature at which oil will boil. Used as a measurement for lighter oils. It is the temperature at which oil will boil.

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7 Water and Sediment content Percentage of water and impurities in the oil. Heavier oils have more water and sediment. Water and sediment can cause: –Interrupted flame –Clogged burners Percentage of water and impurities in the oil. Heavier oils have more water and sediment. Water and sediment can cause: –Interrupted flame –Clogged burners

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8 Pour Point The lowest temperature at which oil can be poured.

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9 Types of oil #1 - Kerosene #2 - Home Heating Oil #4 - Industrial #6 - Bunker Oil #1 - Kerosene #2 - Home Heating Oil #4 - Industrial #6 - Bunker Oil

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10 #1 - Kerosene Characteristics –BTU Rating:132,900 to 137,000 BTU/Gal –API Gravity:38 to 45 degrees –Weight:6.95lbs / Gal –Flash Point:100 degrees –Pour Point:0 degrees –Will vaporize at room temperature and can easily be ignited. Characteristics –BTU Rating:132,900 to 137,000 BTU/Gal –API Gravity:38 to 45 degrees –Weight:6.95lbs / Gal –Flash Point:100 degrees –Pour Point:0 degrees –Will vaporize at room temperature and can easily be ignited.

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11 #1 Kerosene Uses: –Old style heating –Space heaters –Cleaning solvent Sometimes used in place of #2 oil or mixed into outdoor tanks because of the lower pour point. Flows better at low temperatures. Uses: –Old style heating –Space heaters –Cleaning solvent Sometimes used in place of #2 oil or mixed into outdoor tanks because of the lower pour point. Flows better at low temperatures.

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12 #2 - Home Heating Oil Characteristics –BTU Rating:140,000 BTU/Gal –API Gravity:20 to 28 degrees –Weight:6.9 - 7.3 lbs / Gal –Flash Point:130 degrees –Pour Point:20 degrees –Will not vaporize at room temperature and to ignite you must add heat. Characteristics –BTU Rating:140,000 BTU/Gal –API Gravity:20 to 28 degrees –Weight:6.9 - 7.3 lbs / Gal –Flash Point:130 degrees –Pour Point:20 degrees –Will not vaporize at room temperature and to ignite you must add heat.

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13 #2 - Home Heating Oil Uses: –Residential Home Heating –Residential Hot Water –Light Commercial Applications Uses: –Residential Home Heating –Residential Hot Water –Light Commercial Applications

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14 #4 - Industrial Oil Characteristics –BTU Rating:145,000 BTU/Gal –API Gravity:20 to 28 degrees –Weight:7.78 lbs / Gal –Flash Point:130 degrees –Pour Point:20 degrees –Does not require pre-heating –Industrial heat and power. Characteristics –BTU Rating:145,000 BTU/Gal –API Gravity:20 to 28 degrees –Weight:7.78 lbs / Gal –Flash Point:130 degrees –Pour Point:20 degrees –Does not require pre-heating –Industrial heat and power.

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15 #6 - Bunker Oil Characteristics –BTU Rating:153,000 BTU/Gal –API Gravity:8 to 15 degrees –Weight:8.44 lbs / Gal –Flash Point:50 degrees –Pour Point:Can not pour Characteristics –BTU Rating:153,000 BTU/Gal –API Gravity:8 to 15 degrees –Weight:8.44 lbs / Gal –Flash Point:50 degrees –Pour Point:Can not pour

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16 Oil Heat Calculations BTU Output: –The amount of heat being used to heat the space. –Heating oil has a BTU content of 140,000 BTU’s per gallon. BTU Output: –The amount of heat being used to heat the space. –Heating oil has a BTU content of 140,000 BTU’s per gallon.

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17 Oil Heat Calculations To determine how much heat a nozzle is capable of, multiply the GPH of the nozzle times 140,000. Example: –.75GPH Nozzle x 140,000 = 105,000 BTU –.50GPH Nozzle x 140,000 = 70,000 BTU To determine how much heat a nozzle is capable of, multiply the GPH of the nozzle times 140,000. Example: –.75GPH Nozzle x 140,000 = 105,000 BTU –.50GPH Nozzle x 140,000 = 70,000 BTU

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18 Oil Heat Calculations Examples –1.25GPH x 140,000 = 175,000 BTU These numbers are only accurate with a 100% efficient furnace. These numbers only work if oil pressure is at 100 psi. Examples –1.25GPH x 140,000 = 175,000 BTU These numbers are only accurate with a 100% efficient furnace. These numbers only work if oil pressure is at 100 psi.

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19 Oil Heat Calculations Using the furnace efficiency percentage and accurate BTU output can be calculated. Example: –A furnace has a.50GPH nozzle and an efficiency of 80%. –Knowing that 20% of the heat is going out the chimney the 70,000 btu’s will be lower. Using the furnace efficiency percentage and accurate BTU output can be calculated. Example: –A furnace has a.50GPH nozzle and an efficiency of 80%. –Knowing that 20% of the heat is going out the chimney the 70,000 btu’s will be lower.

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20 Oil Heat Calculations Example(cont) –.50GPH x 140,000 = 70,000 –70,000 x.80 = 56,000 btu/hr –.50GPH x 140,000 x 20% = 56,000 btu/hr –This means that 14,000 btu/hr are going up the chimney (20% of 70,000). Example(cont) –.50GPH x 140,000 = 70,000 –70,000 x.80 = 56,000 btu/hr –.50GPH x 140,000 x 20% = 56,000 btu/hr –This means that 14,000 btu/hr are going up the chimney (20% of 70,000).

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21 Calculating Air Flow The volume of air is defined as Cubic Feet Per Minute (CFM) To calculate the CFM of a furnace the BTU’s must be known. Q = The quantity of useable BTUS of a system. The volume of air is defined as Cubic Feet Per Minute (CFM) To calculate the CFM of a furnace the BTU’s must be known. Q = The quantity of useable BTUS of a system.

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22 Calculating Air Flow Example: A furnace has a.50GPH nozzle and is 90% efficient. Q = 140,000 x.50 x.90 Q = 63,000 Now take a supply duct temperature reading with the burner and fan on. Example: A furnace has a.50GPH nozzle and is 90% efficient. Q = 140,000 x.50 x.90 Q = 63,000 Now take a supply duct temperature reading with the burner and fan on.

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23 Calculating Air Flow Next take a return air temperature reading with the burner and fan on. Subtract the return from the supply to get your Delta-T (Temperature difference). Multiply this number by 1.08 (this is a constant). Next take a return air temperature reading with the burner and fan on. Subtract the return from the supply to get your Delta-T (Temperature difference). Multiply this number by 1.08 (this is a constant).

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24 Calculating Air Flow The formula: CFM = Q ÷ (∆T x 1.08) CFM = 63,000 ÷ ((145-69)x 1.08) CFM = 63,000 ÷ (76 x 1.08) CFM = 63,000 ÷ 82.08 CFM = 767 CFM The formula: CFM = Q ÷ (∆T x 1.08) CFM = 63,000 ÷ ((145-69)x 1.08) CFM = 63,000 ÷ (76 x 1.08) CFM = 63,000 ÷ 82.08 CFM = 767 CFM

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25 Calculating Air Flow This calculation can help the duct designer or technician decide if the ductwork is undersized and can also help determine if air conditioning can be added to the ductwork. Air Conditioning requires 400CFM per Ton (12,000 BTU’s) This calculation can help the duct designer or technician decide if the ductwork is undersized and can also help determine if air conditioning can be added to the ductwork. Air Conditioning requires 400CFM per Ton (12,000 BTU’s)

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