Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Scientific Revolution The Traditional View: The Ptolemaic-Aristotelian Universe Purpose of science: to explain what is observed Astronomy Geocentrism Two-part universe: *four elements— earth, water, air and fire (gravity & levity) *quintessence (crystal spheres) (perfect circular motion)

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Scientific Revolution ( ) Copernicus,1543—”On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbs” Heliocentrism—simplicity (based on theory, not evidence) Traditional mechanics Scientific opposition: Does the earth move? Parallax issue—size of the universe Religious opposition: Little at first—many clergy were sympathetic (Heliocentrism denounced by the church in 1616)

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Scientific Revolution New sightings: comet and nova in 1570’s (incompatible with Ptolemaic conception) Giordano Bruno: “Of an Infinite Universe and Innumerable Worlds” Burnt at the stake (Church sees theological danger in the Copernican heliocentric view) Tycho Brahe—detailed observations Johannes Kepler—elliptical orbits

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Scientific Revolution Galileo Supports Copernicus New findings (telescope): *Sunspots *Moons of Jupiter *Phases of Venus Mechanics: laws of motion Thought experiments (Which is more important? theory or observation?) Challenge to authority Problems with the church (denounced, but exonerated in 1992) [Letter to Grand Duchess Christina] The tide begins to favor the heliocentric theory

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 Galileo’s Telescope

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. The Scientific Revolution Isaac Newton: the culmination of the Scientific Revolution “Principia Mathematica Naturalis Philosophiae,” 1687 (“The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) [The greatest scientific work ever written] (No proof that the earth moves until 1729) Why did Hart rank him as the No. 2 most influential person? What was his major accomplishment?

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 “he found a hodgepodge of isolated facts and laws...and left us a unified system of laws capable of application to an enormous range of physical phenomena.” (RGH p. 18) “a clockwork universe”

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 Traditional vs. Modern Views Knowledge Humans Nature God/The Church

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 The Enlightenment – The Age of Reason “The political history of the Western world since the 18th century has been dominated by the notion of individual rights.”

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Medieval View of Rights ordained by birth or status Ex. aristocracy = social organization fixed by custom or tradition, depending on one’s place in the social hierarchy group privileges, not individual rights ordained by God – “divine rights” monarchy (absolutism) = political organization religion affirmed traditional roles

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 Are there universal natural laws for human societies (or institutions ), and, if so, how to discover them and what are they? Would God create a cosmos with universal natural laws that humans could discover and apply, and not create universal natural laws for human society?

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Influence of the “New Thought” on other fields of thought Political Thought – Locke and Hobbes HobbesLocke Nature of Manpassionsreason State of naturewarinconvenience Social Contractsurrender ofsurrender of all power tosome power to a sovereigna government (absolutism)(constitutionalism) Alternativenonerevolution

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Core Principles of Enlightenment “the science of human beings” 1.Reason – “self-evident” 2.Natural Law – universal 3.Progress – “a paradise on earth”

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 The Theory of Progress Enlightenment ideas would ultimately lead to human harmony, material wealth. Decline in role of organized religion. “Humans, through reason, could discover the natural laws of human society, which, when applied, would lead to a “paradise on earth.”

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 Philosophes – public intellectuals (Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau) “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, the point is to change it” Propagandists Social activists 1751 Encyclopédie – accumulation of the new scientific worldview, the “clockwork universe”

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 Deism, the Natural Religion -God the creator, the “clockmaker” -God has revealed himself through nature - religious freedom - “My mind is my own church” -separation of church and state -Voltaire “ecrasez l’infame” – opposed to organized religion -natural morality – humans good by nature Was Tom Paine an atheist?

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 Economics Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, basic principles of capitalism private property individual self-interest the market, free enterprise supply and demand “the invisible hand” laissez-faire – no government interference free trade wealth measured by total productivity of the society

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 Law and Justice Beccaria, Italian 1761 treatise more humane treatment of criminals abolish capital punishment no torture punishment should fit the crime rehabilitation rather than punishment prevention of crime rather than punishment

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Education Rousseau – education should be natural, “back to nature,” the modern concept of childhood Locke – “tabula rasa” - empiricism (relying on sense experiences to determine reality) liberal arts training for citizenship public, secular education humans are rational

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 Politics -popular sovereignty-power for government comes from the people -representative government – democracy -constitutionalism -individual rights (civil rights) -equality -separation of powers/checks and balances

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 Ancien Regime “Evils” Mercantilism Absolutism Aristocracy The Church Slavery

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25 Louis XIV (The “Sun King,” ) L’état, c’est moi: “I am the state.” Magnificent palace at Versailles, 1670s, becomes his court  Largest building in Europe  1,400 fountains  25,000 fully grown trees transplanted Power centered in court, important nobles pressured to maintain presence

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26 Louis XIV “Dude look like a lady”


Download ppt "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google