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ANALIZA PREKOGRANIČNOG ONEČIŠĆENJA LEBDEĆIM ČESTICAMA UZROKOVANOG ŠUMSKIM POŽARIMA ANALIZA PREKOGRANIČNOG ONEČIŠĆENJA LEBDEĆIM ČESTICAMA UZROKOVANOG ŠUMSKIM.

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Presentation on theme: "ANALIZA PREKOGRANIČNOG ONEČIŠĆENJA LEBDEĆIM ČESTICAMA UZROKOVANOG ŠUMSKIM POŽARIMA ANALIZA PREKOGRANIČNOG ONEČIŠĆENJA LEBDEĆIM ČESTICAMA UZROKOVANOG ŠUMSKIM."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANALIZA PREKOGRANIČNOG ONEČIŠĆENJA LEBDEĆIM ČESTICAMA UZROKOVANOG ŠUMSKIM POŽARIMA ANALIZA PREKOGRANIČNOG ONEČIŠĆENJA LEBDEĆIM ČESTICAMA UZROKOVANOG ŠUMSKIM POŽARIMA A NALYSIS OF TRANSBOUNDARY PM POLLUTION CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES Amela Jeričević & Branko Grisogono 1 Thanx to student Goran Gašparac on the preparation of emission data

2 F OREST FIRES - BIOMAS BURNING PRODUCTS EFIS system 2

3 F OREST FIRES Significant impacts on local air quality, visibility and human health. Emissions from forest fires can travel large distances, affecting air quality and human health far from the originating fires. particulate matter-second largest source of PM 2.5 from wood smoke (second to open-burning sources).PM 2.5 The major products of biomass burning are CO 2 and water vapour. Large number of particulates and trace gases are produced, including the products of incomplete combustion (CO, NMVOCs) and nitrogen and sulphur species, which indirectly influence the tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) budget (Koppmann et al., 2005). These arise partly from nitrogen and sulphur contained in the vegetation and organic matter in the surface soils. Additionally, emissions can arise from the re-volatilisation of substances which have been deposited (Hegg et al., 1987, 1990). 3

4 F IRE E MISSIONS PROPERTIES The relative contribution of (open and domestic) biomass burning emissions to the global annual emission CO is ~ 25 %, for NOx ~ 18 % and for non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) and CH4 ~ 6 % (IPCC, 2001). Europe - the contribution to total emissions is much lower, since the vast majority of fires occur in tropical regions Corinair90 inventory in Europe forest fires account for 0.2 % of NOx emissions, 0.5 % of NMVOC, 1.9 % of CO emissions and 0.1 % of NH3 emissions. > uncertainties Since fires occur over short periods of time, emissions may significantly contribute to ground-level concentrations during these events. 4

5 E UROPEAN F OREST F IRE I NFORMATION S YSTEM EFFIS HTTP :// EFFIS. JRC. IT / developed jointly by the EC services (Directorate General Environment and the Joint Research Centre) and the relevant fires services in the countries (forest fires and civil protection services) in response to the needs of European bodies such as the Monitoring and Information Centre of Civil Protection, the European Commission Services and the European Parliament the CO 2 emissions during recent catastrophic fires in Greece was in the range of 4.5 Mt until end of August 2007, representing ~ 4 % of the total annual CO 2 emissions of this country. For August 2003, the contribution of wildfire emissions in South Europe of observed PM 2.5 appeared to be comparable to anthropogenic emissions, with significant impact on radiative properties in large areas of Europe (Hodzic et al. 2007). 5

6 F IRES IN EUROPE The frequency and extent of fires in Europe is very variable from year to year, reflecting year-to-year climatological variability, with an average of about half a million hectares in the last 20 years, excluding the European part of Russia. On average, during the period 2000 to 2005, about fires occurred annually in European countries, burning almost hectares of forest land every year. However, figures have reached values over ha in 2003 or nearly one million ha in 2007 (EFFIS). 6

7 JRC REPORT ON FOREST FIRES

8 Expert Group on Forest Fires (EGFF). 8

9 C ROATIA significant hectares of burned vegetation in the coastal (Mediterranean) and continental parts of the country Climate analysis made by the MHSC temperatures in the summer of 2012 (June, July, August) on the coast and in the Adriatic were extremely hot in comparison with recent years. Precipitation in the summer was mainly in categories of very dry and extremely dry the 2012 summer ~significant increase in radiation regime compared with the 10-yr mean weather regime frequency in the Northern and Middle Adriatic. 9

10 C ROATIA -N UMBER OF VEGETATION FIRES IN

11 B URNED AREA 2012 Bosnia-Herzegovina was particularly affected by fires in 2012, suffering a worse year in 2012 than the last five years combined. After ha burnt in March (already more than last year’s total) a further ha brought the annual total to ha. 25 of these fires were more than 1000 ha in size. Croatia suffered its worst fire season for several years, with almost twice as much burnt area recorded as in 2011, including 7 fires of more than 1000 ha in size. There were two peaks of fire activity: one in March, when around half the total burnt area of the season was recorded, and one in July/August. 11

12 A IR QUALITY MODELLING Fires parameterizations 12

13 A IR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM 13 Emissions-anthropogenic+fires

14 F IRE E MISSIONS ESTIMATION Emissions from forest fires depend on (1) the duration and intensity of the fire, (2) the total area burnt by the fire (fair level of accuracy), and (3) the type and amount of vegetation that is burnt ~ fuel load. The state of the art in calculating emissions from open vegetation fires follows the work of Seiler and Crutzen (1980) and is formulated as: Ex = A * B * C* EF, where Ex = emission of compound x A = burnt area (m 2 ) B = fuel load (g dry matter m -2 ) C = burning efficiency EF = emission factor (g g -1 dry matter burnt) 14

15 F IRE E MISSIONS ESTIMATION - RESULTS 15

16 IS4FIRES AN INTEGRATED MONITORING AND MODELLING SYSTEM FOR WILDLAND FIRES The current emission dataset has been obtained by re-analysis of fire radiative power data obtained by MODIS instrument onboard of Aqua and Terra satellites. The period covered is from February 2000 onwards (extension of the period is planned on annual basis). For the period from Feb 2000 till July 2002, only MODIS- Terra data are available 16

17 I NJECTION PROFILE HEIGHT Wild-fires release huge amounts of aerosol and hazardous trace gases in the atmosphere. Residence time and the dispersion of fire pollutants range from hours - > days, local -> continental scales. scenarios depend on the injection height of smoke plumes. The altitude at which fire products are injected in the atmosphere is controlled by fire characteristics and meteorological conditions. Calculation of characteristic injection profile is based on a recently suggested semi-empirical formula for the fire-plume top height (Sofiev et al., 2012). According to this methodology, the plume top Hp depends on the fire radiative power FRP, ABL height Habl, and buoyancy frequency in the free troposphere N FT : 17

18 P YRO CONVECTION 18 Spatial distribution of the 150μgm−3-isosurface of the simulated aerosol mass distribution after 40 min of simulation time. The color coding represents the potential temperature. J.Trentmann, 2006

19 F IRE CASE STUDY - MONITORING 19

20 S TATE MONITORING NETWORK 20

21 CASE STUDY 1 S PLIT

22 C ASE STUDY 1- CONT. 22

23 C ASE STUDY -2 D UBROVNIK

24 Ž ARKOVICA – NEAR D UBROVNIK 24

25 C ONCLUSIONS Fires affect air quality on local and regional scales Modeling is an effective tool to assess the transport and dispersion of air pollutants to forecast the distribution of pollutants and to calculate the effects on health and environment Croatia and BiH are both experiencing high damage in human lives and costs due to forest fires. Joint research projects that would assure building of competent systems contained of data basis, modeling tools and human resources should be the part of our efforts recognized by both states. 25


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