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African Centre for Statistics United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Session 5: Statistics on Air emissions and air quality Workshop on Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "African Centre for Statistics United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Session 5: Statistics on Air emissions and air quality Workshop on Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 African Centre for Statistics United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Session 5: Statistics on Air emissions and air quality Workshop on Environment Statistics and Accounts 7 – 11 March 2011 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

2 African Centre for Statistics Outline of Presentation I. Introduction II. Data collection III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) IV. Indicators of Sustainable Development on air V. MDG indicators on air VI. NEPAD’s Indicators on Air (Atmosphere) VII. Points for discussion

3 African Centre for Statistics I. Introduction Air emissions Air emissions arise from combustion of fossil fuels that are used for transport, power plants, refineries, etc. Air pollutants include CO 2, SO 2, NO x, NM-VOCs Industrial processes and agriculture contribute to emissions Pollutants also include N 2 O and CH 4 Transport and metal industry are sources of lead (Pb) Transport and energy production affect ambient air quality in cities

4 African Centre for Statistics I. Introduction (cont’d) Fugitive emissions Emissions which are released through events such as leaks, spills, and evaporation. Historically, they were often not tracked, with emissions detection and monitoring focusing on emissions generated during combustion. Today, some governments have plans in place to monitor and manage fugitive emissions, and Some have identified specific areas which need improvement with the goal of reducing overall emissions. These pollutants can threaten human or environmental health and contribute to the degradation of the Earth’s atmosphere

5 African Centre for Statistics I. Introduction (cont’d) Emission of pollutants Emissions of pollutants affect local air quality, contribute to regional and global environmental problems such as acidification, eutrophication and climate change Air emissions data are estimated according to international methodologies Estimates are based on national statistics on energy balances, industrial and agricultural production, waste management, land use, etc. The most accepted methodologies are the revised guidelines of the IPCC

6 African Centre for Statistics I. Introduction (cont’d) The IPCC methodologies are the basis for reporting to UNFCCC African countries have reported their national communications to UNFCCC at least once The United Nations Statistical Commission in its 2010 session indicated that national statistical offices could be involved in the computation of air emissions

7 African Centre for Statistics II. Data collection Data collection is done by UNSD and UNEP by using a Questionnaire Data collection is normally done biennially. However, the latest data collection undertaken on air by administering the questionnaire was in 2004 In 2010 data have been collected on water and waste only Data collected will be shared by UN agencies, other regional and international organizations in order to reduce burden on countries and avoid duplication UNSD also gets emissions data from UNFCCC if available

8 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) Air indicators included in the UNSD/UNEP questionnaire A1: Emissions of Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ) 1. Total emissions ( ) 2. Energy activities (production and use) (=2a+2b) 2a. Total fuel combustion (=2aa+2ab+2ac=2ad) 2aa. Energy industries 2ab. Manufacturing industries and construction 2ac. Transport 2ad. Other fuel combustion 2b. Total fugitive emissions from fuels 3. Industrial processes 4. Solvent use 5. Agriculture 6. Other sources of emissions

9 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) (cont’d) A2: Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) 1. Total emissions ( ) 2. Energy activities (production and use) (=2a+2b) 2a. Total fuel combustion (=2aa+2ab+2ac=2ad) 2aa. Energy industries 2ab. Manufacturing industries and construction 2ac. Transport 2ad. Other fuel combustion 2b. Total fugitive emissions from fuels 3. Industrial processes 4. Solvent use 5. Agriculture 6. Other sources of emissions

10 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) (cont’d) A3: Emissions of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NM-VOCs) 1. Total emissions ( ) 2. Energy activities (production and use) (=2a+2b) 2a. Total fuel combustion (=2aa+2ab+2ac=2ad) 2aa. Energy industries 2ab. Manufacturing industries and construction 2ac. Transport 2ad. Other fuel combustion 2b. Total fugitive emissions from fuels 3. Industrial processes 4. Solvent use 5. Agriculture 6. Other sources of emissions

11 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) (cont’d) A4: Emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) 1. Total emissions ( ) 2. Energy activities (production and use) (=2a+2b) 2a. Total fuel combustion (=2aa+2ab+2ac=2ad) 2aa. Energy industries 2ab. Manufacturing industries and construction 2ac. Transport 2ad. Other fuel combustion 2b. Total fugitive emissions from fuels 3. Industrial processes 4. Solvent use 5. Agriculture 6. Other sources of emissions

12 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) (cont’d) A5: Emissions of Methane (CH 4 ) 1. Total emissions ( ) 2. Energy activities (production and use) (=2a+2b) 2a. Total fuel combustion (=2aa+2ab+2ac=2ad) 2aa. Energy industries 2ab. Manufacturing industries and construction 2ac. Transport 2ad. Other fuel combustion 2b. Total fugitive emissions from fuels 3. Industrial processes 4. Solvent use 5. Agriculture 6. Other sources of emissions

13 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) (cont’d) A6: Emissions of Nitrous Oxide (N 2 O) 1. Total emissions ( ) 2. Energy activities (production and use) (=2a+2b) 2a. Total fuel combustion (=2aa+2ab+2ac=2ad) 2aa. Energy industries 2ab. Manufacturing industries and construction 2ac. Transport 2ad. Other fuel combustion 2b. Total fugitive emissions from fuels 3. Industrial processes 4. Solvent use 5. Agriculture 6. Other sources of emissions

14 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) (cont’d) A7: Emissions of Lead (Pb) 1. Total mobile sources of which Road transport 2. Total stationary sources 3. Total emissions (=1+2) 4. Average lead content of leaded petrol 5. Total consumption of leaded petrol 6. Total consumption of lead-free petrol

15 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) (cont’d) A8: Annual Mean Concentrations of Sulphur Dioxide in Ambient Air Station name Urban city Industrial city Background site A9: Annual Mean Concentrations of Nitrogen Dioxide in Ambient Air Station name Urban city Industrial city Background site

16 African Centre for Statistics III. UNSD / UNEP Questionnaire on Air (2004) (cont’d) A10: Annual Mean Concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in Ambient Air Station name Urban city Industrial city Background site

17 African Centre for Statistics IV. Indicators of Sustainable Development In the ISD only 4 air indicators included Ambient concentration of air pollutants in urban areas Carbon dioxide emissions Consumption of ozone depleting substances Emissions of greenhouse gases

18 African Centre for Statistics V. MDG indicators Two indicators on air included in MDGs Carbon dioxide emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP) Consumption of ozone-depleting substances

19 African Centre for Statistics VI. NEPAD’s Indicators on Air (Atmosphere) Seven air indicators included in NEPAD Annual mean concentrations of Sulphur Dioxide in ambient air Annual mean concentrations of Nitrogen Dioxide in ambient air Annual mean concentrations of suspended particulate matter in ambient air Emissions of greenhouse gases (SO 2, NO 2, CH 4, CO 2 ) Annual mean emissions of lead Annual variability in temperature (at least for the last 30 years) Annual variability in rainfall (at least for the last 30 years)

20 African Centre for Statistics VII. Points for discussion Which air indicators are compiled by your country? Which offices are the main sources of air data? What challenges have you faced during compilation of the data? How did you address the challenges?

21 African Centre for Statistics United Nations Economic Commission for Africa Thank you


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