Presentation on theme: "Land between two rivers. Early establishment of cities Ubaid Phase 5900- 4000 BC Uruk period 4000-3000 BC Early Dynastic 3000-2350 BC Akkadian."— Presentation transcript:
Land between two rivers
Early establishment of cities Ubaid Phase 5900- 4000 BC Uruk period 4000-3000 BC Early Dynastic 3000-2350 BC Akkadian Period 2350-2150 BC Neo Sumerian 2150-2000 BC Old Babylonian period 2000-1600 BC Old Assyrian period 2000-1600 BC Middle Assyrian 16000-1000 BC Neo Assyrian 1000-605 BC Neo Babylonian 605-539 BC Persian and Hellenistic period 539-126 BC
Ancient Sumeria and Babylon known from Old Testament, but periods before these Biblical stories is largely unknown. Mesopotamian cities and rulers had profound impact on Egypt, Elamites in Iran and development of urban life, art, and the practice of war for conquest.
Excavations at Tell al-Ubaid were initiated in 1919. Pottery fragments on the dessert surface hinted at city beneath the sand. Early field seasons revealed copper statues, remnants of sculptured lions, eagles, stags, and bulls. Also found: handcrafted pottery, utensils, fragments of wooden columns, and jewelry with inlaid mother-of-pearl.
Excavations at Eridu were begun in 1942. Deposits suggested 2000 years of occupation. Earliest phases extended back to the Ubaid period around 5900 BC. Burials (many with grave offerings), pottery, sculpture, pictographic images, temple foundations: all revealed a well ordered society with sophisticated artistic traditions.
Copper lion head Ubaid style pottery 3500BC
Ubaid painted pottery sherds. Distribution of such shards helps identify the range scope of cultural influence throughout the region.
Ancient environmental evidence suggest the area was once better watered, with easy access to the river delta (today a desert region). Based on comparative pottery studies and temple style it is evident the Ubaid culture eventually extended across all of southern Mesopotamia.
Excavation extend to a depth of 60 feet to reach “sterile” soils. Ubaid culture is noted for pottery of distinctive style, and for a mixed lifestyle of agriculture, animal husbandry, and fishing. Ubaid was true city. Social stratification was well established. Clay boat model, Eridu 4000BC. Earliest known boat representation.
Kitchen deposit, Ubaid.
British soldiers deployed in Iraq, at tell al-Ubaid. Courtesy British Museum.
Mentioned in Epic of Gilgamesh: “…the outer walls shine with the brilliance of copper…the inner wall has no equal…the wall is great; is it not burnt brick and good?” The site is marked by a 40 foot tall temple (an early ziggurat). Remains of mud-brick walls run for 5 miles. Strong evidence for craft specialization and revealed clear signs of division of labor along with class distinctions.
Landscape of Uruk
Uruk, late phase.
Mosaic columns made from thousands of cones. Carved alabaster female figurine.
Ongoing since 1922 by German archaeologists. Site is marked on landscape by tall ziggurat. The “white temple” was devoted to Inanna: goddess of love and war (same as Ishtar). Tokens and administrative records indicate writing 300 years before the Egyptians. One mystery remains: where had the inhabitants come from?
Temple of Inanna, Uruk.
Cambridge archaeologist Joan Oates discovered 8000-year old site at Choga Mami. Predates Ubaid. Pushes early Sumerian culture back in time an additional 2500 years. The earliest houses of Mesopotamia. Several communal granaries uncovered. Pottery styles similar to Ubaid types. Evidence of irrigation canals.
Cylinder seals Personal tokens Mosaics Early pictographic writing—eventually evolve into cuneiform Temple construction. Cultural trajectory leads to Sumerian civilization. Images to follow courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Proto cuneiform Cylinder seal, quartz. Decorated pottery
Late Uruk, 3300 BC. “Priest-King.” Carved alabaster. Uruk, Jamdat-Nasr phase, 3000 BC. Lapis lazuli and shell.
Late Uruk, 3000 BC. Stele of Ushumgal, Early Dynastic I, 2900 BC
Ubaid, Early Dynastic III, 2400 BC. Copper alloy bull. Proto-Elamite, 3000BC. Lioness demon, Crystalline limestone.
Demons Bullman, Alabaster. Early Dynastic I. 2900 BC Proto-Elamite (Iran). Horned demon. 3000 BC. Arsenic copper alloy.
Fragment of libation vessel. Early Dynastic III, 2400 BC. Inscription identifies the goddess.
Various supplicant priests 2550 BC 2900 BC
Female supplicants. 2500 BC 2550 BC
Parade of bulls. Mixed media: limestone, shell copper, shale. Early Dynastic IIIB, 2400 BC Kneeling bull, Silver, 3000BC Proto-Elamite
Various cylinder seals and their impressions. Seals are used to identify property or for official signatures. Seals frequently portray familiar mythical scenes or everyday life in unique fashion. These are clay, Jamdat Nasr phase, 3000BC.
Wall plaque. Banquet with musicians. Limestone. From Khafajah, Sin Temple, level IX, early Dynastic 2550 BC Three registers. Display scene. This piece in Oriental Museum of Chicago. Missing piece is in Baghdad, Iraq National Museum. Fragment here is part of a door lock.
Research in the 1920s was spurred by interest in “Biblical Archaeology” Sir Leonard Woolley began work at Ur in 1922 (joint effort by the British Museum and University of Pennsylvania). Ur is described in Genesis as birthplace of Abraham, patriarch of the Jews. Excavations from 1922-1934 eventually included a Royal Sumerian tomb.
Woolley poses for photographers. Woolley and T.E. Lawrence.
University of Pennsylvania archives. Wooley excavation at Ur.
First writing. First known use of the wheel. First cities with monumental architecture. Well defined class structure. Earliest “literature” and epic stories. First use of administrative accounting. Strong concept of private ownership. First examples of seafaring.