Presentation on theme: "Was Ancient Sumer a Civilization?"— Presentation transcript:
1Was Ancient Sumer a Civilization? History AliveChapter 5
25.1 Introduction Focus on Sumerian culture. In 1800’s archeologists bean finding artifacts in Mesopotamia.By studying artifacts the archeologists have learned about Sumer.One artifact is the Standard of Ur.
3Standard of Ur It was found where the city of Ur once stood. It is made of wood and decorated with shell and lapis lazuli.It shows the Sumerians in war and at peace.
5Characteristics of a Civilization Stable food supplySocial structureSystem of governmentReligious systemHighly developed culture including painting, architecture, music, and literaturetechnologyWritten language
65.3 Stable Food SupplyA stable food supply is what allows people in a society to have the food they need in order to survive.
7Two Sumerian inventions that helped create a stable food supply Complex irrigation system including canals, dams, and reservoirs to provide their crops with water.The plow is a tool used for turning the soil to prepare it for planting.
85.4 Social Structure Upper Class Common Class Slaves A social structure is the way a society or civilization is organized.Upper ClassCommon ClassSlaves
9Sumerian Social Class Structure Upper ClassThese people had large and luxurious two story homes near the center or the city.PriestsLand ownersGovernment Officials
10Sumerian Social Class Structure Common ClassLived in small, mud-brick houses at the edge of the city.Merchants and CraftspeopleMetalworkers—FamersFisherman
11Sumerian Social Class Structure SlavesLived in their owners’ homes and owned no property.
125.5 Government The people or groups that rule a particular region. Sumerian city-states were ruled by kings who they believed were chosen by Sumerian Gods.
13Sumerian Kings Enforced laws and collected taxes. Built temples. Maintained the irrigation system.Led his army to war.List of the Sumerian Kings
155.6 ReligionA religious system includes a set of beliefs, usually in god or gods, together with forms or worship.Sumerians built ziggurats.A ziggurat is an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower.
165.7 The ArtsAll civilizations have a highly developed culture, including the arts. Arts include creative forms of expression such as painting, architecture, and music.
17Artists and Craftspeople in Sumer Sumerian metalworkers made weapons, cups, mirrors, jewelry.Artisans also decorated the ziggurats.
18Sir Charles Leonard Woolley British archaeologist Charles Leonard Woolley (April 17, February 20, 1960) became famous for the artifacts and information he uncovered during his magnificent excavations at Ur. Woolley is noted as one of the first modern archaeologists, and was knighted in 1935 for his services to archaeology.Born in London to a clergyman, Woolley graduated from New College in Oxford, and in 1905 he became Assistant Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. In 1922, Woolley was chosen by the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania to lead the famous excavation at Ur. The excavations of the temple complex and the ziggurat in the city complex were impressive but it was the Royal Cemetery of Ur which proved to be the most amazing archeological find of the period. His most important discovery was the tomb of "Queen" Puabi. Miraculously untouched by looters, her tomb contained thousands of beads and other pieces of jewelry including a seal bearing her name in Sumerian. Buried with her were her attendants, guards and musicians who had participated in the funerary ceremony. Woolley was adept in conserving objects while they were still in the ground. Filling the lost wooden elements with wax, dowels, and plaster, he was able to reconstruct the form of many objects. His work at Ur, which ended in 1934, added tremendous amounts of information to our knowledge of this early period.Unwilling to rest on the laurels brought by the work at Ur, he also excavated at the sites of Tell Atchana and al-Mina in Syria. In addition to being a talented archaeologist, Woolley wrote more than 25 books including Excavations at Ur: A Record of 12 Years' Work, published in 1954, and Spadework: Adventures in Archaeology, published in 1953.Discovered the treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur