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By Dmitry Liskin Norfolk, VA October 2012.  According to Rheinheitsgebot (1516) beer should only contain:  Water  Barley  Hops  Yeast was discovered.

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Presentation on theme: "By Dmitry Liskin Norfolk, VA October 2012.  According to Rheinheitsgebot (1516) beer should only contain:  Water  Barley  Hops  Yeast was discovered."— Presentation transcript:

1 By Dmitry Liskin Norfolk, VA October 2012

2  According to Rheinheitsgebot (1516) beer should only contain:  Water  Barley  Hops  Yeast was discovered in 1800 by L. Pasteur

3  Beer-like beverages appeared around 10,000 BC  First evidence points at Mesopotamia region  Is said to be responsible for development of agriculture

4  Hardness  Carbonate – temporary  Gave birth to beers with malty, smooth finish  Munich, Dublin, London, St.Louis, Milwaukee  Sulfate – permanent  Bitter, pale beers  Burton-on-Trent  Other ions  zinc, copper are necessary for fermentation  Iron, manganese and chloride will cause flavor problems

5  Malt: barley that has been sprouted and dried  Color  Golden to black  Aroma  Bready, malty, nutty, toasty, roasty  Flavor  Caramel, toffee, molasses, coffee  These characteristics develop due to non-enzymatic browning reactions

6  Thermal decomposition of sugar, pyrolysis  110 o C – 180 o C  Low-moisture  Produces a variety of products

7  Reaction between amino acid and sugar  48 o C – 230 o C

8  Beer preservation  Bitterness  Flavor  Aroma

9  Brewers’ best kept secret  Converts fermentable sugars to alcohol  Top fermenting – ale; bottom - lager  Contributes to flavor with other byproducts  Fusel alcohols  Esters  Aldehydes

10  Bitters and Pale ale  Stout  Scottish ale  India Pale ale  Lager

11  The beer of an Empire (1702 – 1714)  Use of coal gave birth to pale malt  Firm hop bitterness  Low hop character  Touch of caramel from malt (bitters)  Light fruity character from yeast  About 5% alcohol

12  Dark beer with roasty character  Refreshing low alcohol to warming high gravity beers  Dry stout  Sweet stout  Oatmeal stout  Imperial stout

13  Malt sweetness, smoky  Clean finish  Low bitterness  Wide range of alcohol levels  60/-, 70/- and 80/-

14  Bitter, hoppy ale  Crisp finish  Malty, some caramel flavor  Moderately strong (5% - 7.5% alcohol)

15  Malt focused beers  Low hop character  4.4% – 5.4% alcohol  Clean finish  Most food friendly style

16  Base malt with specialty grains  Mashing  Hydration of malt  Gelatinization of starches  Release of natural enzymes  Conversion of starch to fermentable sugars

17  Starch conversion (60 o C – 75 o C)  Alpha-amylase  Beta-amylase  Limit-dextrinase  Alpha-glucosidase  Protein rest  Proteases  peptidases

18  Beer clarity  The hot break – protein coagulation  The cold break – protein coagulation  Hop additions  Bitterness – min  Hop flavor – 20 min  Hop aroma – 5 min or dryhopping

19  Alpha acids = Bitterness of beer  Humulone  Cohumulone  Adhumulone  Measured by IBU’s (International Bittering Unit)  1 IBU = 1 mg alpha acid per 1 L

20  Myrcene – pungent  Humulene – delicate and refined  Caryophyllene oxide – herbal/spicy

21  Beer is born when yeast is pitched  Yeast characteristics  Type – Lager, Ale, Weizen  Flavor – malty, fruity, woody, etc.  Attenuation – degree of fermentation  Temperature – impacts flavor  Flocculation – precipitation of yeast  Sugar, oxygen, nitrogen and minerals are needed

22  Adaptation  High growth  Aerobic process  A few hours  Attenuation  Production of alcohol  Anaerobic process  Fermentation of simple sugars  4 – 10 days  Conditioning  Conversion of byproducts to ethanol  Flocculation

23  Diacetyl and pentadione – buttery flavor  Acetaldehyde – green apple aroma and flavor  Fusel alcohols – oxidation to esters; fruity aroma  These byproducts will be metabolized during conditioning stage

24  Water  Hardness affects mash pH and taste  Malt  Color, flavor, aroma and body  Hops  Preservation  Bitterness, flavor, aroma  Yeast  Alcohol, flavor, aroma, clarity  Combination of these factors gives the finished product  Complex flavors are desired while complicated ones to be avoided

25  Referenced literature  Randy Mosher “Radical Brewing”  John Palmer “How to Brew”  Ray Daniels “Designing Great Beers”  Jamil Zainasheff and John Palmer “Brewing Classic Styles”  BYO “Brew Your Own” magazine  O’Connor Brewery  Christopher Newport University department of Molecular Biology and Chemistry  Fellow brewers


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