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Chapter 4 Ecosystems and Communities

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1 Chapter 4 Ecosystems and Communities
4-1 The Role of Climate A. What is Climate? 1. Climate is the average yearly condition of temperature and precipitation in a region. 2. It's caused by latitude, winds, ocean currents, and the shape and height of land masses. 3. Climate affects ecosystems, because all organisms have certain needs for temperature

2 B. The Greenhouse Effect
1. The greenhouse effect keeps the temperature on Earth within a good range for life. 2. The gases in the atmosphere trap heat-CO2, CH4, water vapor 3. Heat energy cannot pass back out as easily as light energy enters


4 C. The Effect of Latitude on a Climate
1. Differences in latitude determine the amount of sunlight that hits and then heats the Earth's surface. 2. Differences in heating cause three main climate zones: a. Polar Zone - very cold areas b. Temperate Zone - ranges from hot to cold depending on the season. c. Tropical Zone - always warm


6 D. Heat Transport in the Biosphere
1. Unequal heating of Earth's surface causes winds and ocean currents. 2. Winds and currents move heat through the biosphere.

7 4-2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? A. Biotic and Abiotic Factors
1. Organisms are influenced by - biological (biotic) and - physical (abiotic) factors. 2. Biotic factors include all living things 3. Abiotic factors include climate, humidity, soil type, and other nonliving factors

8 B. The Niche 1. A niche includes what an organism eats and how it gets its food, as well as the physical conditions, and when and how it reproduces. “the role an organism plays in its environment” 2. No 2 species can occupy the same niche.

9 C. Community Interactions
1. Communities interact in one of three ways: a. Competition - organisms try to use the same resources they need to live. Competition often results in one organism dying out. b. Predation - this occurs when one organism (predator) captures and eats another (prey)

10 Symbiosis - occurs when two species live together in one of three ways:
i. Mutualism - both species benefit from the relationship What are some examples?

11 ii. Commensalism - one species benefits and the other is neither
ii.Commensalism - one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed Examples? iii. Parasitism - one species benefits by living in or on the other and the other is harmed. Examples?

12 D. Ecological Succession
1. As an ecosystem ages, older inhabitants die out and new organisms move in. 2. Ecological Succession is the predictable changes that occur in a community. a. primary succession b. secondary succession

13 4-3 Biomes A. Biomes and Climate 1. A biome is a group of communities on land that covers a large area and is characterized by certain soil and climate.

14 1. There are ten major biomes:
B. The Major Biomes 1. There are ten major biomes: - Tropical Rain Forest - Tropical Dry Forest - Tropical Savanna - Desert - Temperate Grassland - Temperate Woodland and Shrubland - Temperate Forest - Northwestern Coniferous Forest - Boreal Forest (Taiga) - Tundra

15 Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Dry Forest Tropical Savanna Temperate Woodland and Shrubland Temperate Forest Temperate Grassland

16 Desert Boreal Forest (Taiga) Northwestern Coniferous Forest Tundra

17 4.4 Aquatic Ecosystems A. Freshwater Ecosystems
1. Flowing-Water—such as rivers,streams creeks. The turbulent water has more dissolved O2 than still water. 2. Standing-Water—lakes, ponds. These contain phytoplankton (single-celled algae) and zooplankton. 3. Freshwater wetlands—water either covers soil or is at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year.

18 3 types of wetlands: Bogs—dominated by sphagnum moss
Marshes—shallow wetlands along rivers Swamps—usually have slowly flowing water, and have trees and shrubs B. Estuaries—where rivers meet the sea; serve as spawning and nursery grounds for fish and shellfish 2 types: salt marshes—temperate zone estuaries; and mangrove swamps—across tropical regions

19 C. Marine Ecosystems Divided into areas according to amount of sunlight or depth and distance from shore Sunlight: photic zone—depth to which sunlight penetrates; aphotic zone—sunlight does not reach, so chemosynthetic autotrophs are found here Depth and distance from shore: intertidal zone, coastal ocean, open ocean, coral reefs, and benthic zone

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