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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness

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1 Basic Principles of Physical Fitness
Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness

2 Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness
Physical activity levels have declined Healthy People 2010: More than 55% of U.S. adults do not engage in recommended amounts of activity 25% are not active at all

3 Levels of Physical Activity

4 Physical Activity on a Continuum
Physical activity = any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy Exercise = planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness Physical fitness = a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort

5 Lifestyle Physical Activity
For health promotion: Expend about 150 calories—equivalent to 30 minutes of brisk walking—on most days For health promotion and weight management: Engage in 45–60 or more minutes of activity on most days

6 Moderate Amounts of Physical Activity

7 Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness
Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not improve fitness A structured, formal exercise program improves physical fitness and provides even greater health improvements

8 How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?
Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity exercise Continuous versus intermittent exercise Low-intensity exercise improves health but may not be very beneficial for improving physical fitness

9 How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

10 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness
Health-related fitness = physical capacities that contribute to health Five components: 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance = the ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity

11 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness
2. Muscular strength = the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort 3. Muscular endurance = the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly 4. Flexibility = the ability to move joints through their full range of motion

12 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness
5. Body composition = the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body

13 Skill-Related Components of Fitness
Speed Power Agility Balance Coordination Reaction time

14 Principles of Training: Adaptation to Stress
The human body adjusts to meet increasing demands placed on it; the greater the demand the greater the adjustment made Particular types and amounts of exercise are most effective in making the body fit. Four principles of successful training:adaptation

15 Specificity—Adapting to Type of Training
The body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it To develop a particular fitness component, perform exercises specifically designed for that component

16 Progressive Overload—Adapting to Amount of Training
Placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness FITT principle for overload: Frequency—How often Intensity—How hard Time—How long (duration) Type—Mode of activity

17 Reversibility—Adapting to a Reduction in Training
Fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered If you stop exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months

18 Individual Differences— Limits on Adaptability
Everyone is NOT created equal from a physical standpoint There are large individual differences in ability to improve fitness, body composition, and sports skills

19 Designing Your Own Exercise Program
Medical clearance Fitness assessment Setting goals Choosing activities for a balanced program Include activities to develop health-related components of physical fitness

20 Physical Activity Pyramid

21 Benefits of Different Programs

22 Guidelines for Training
Train the way you want your body to change Train regularly Get in shape gradually; do not overtrain Warm up before exercise Cool down after exercise Exercise safely

23 Guidelines for Training
Listen to your body Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts Try training with a partner Train your mind Add variety and have fun Keep your exercise program in perspective

24 Progression of an Exercise Program: Get in Shape Gradually

25 Amount of Exercise for Fitness Benefits

26 Choosing a Fitness Center
Convenience Atmosphere Safety Trained personnel Cost Effectiveness

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