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Basic Principles of Physical Fitness Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness.

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Presentation on theme: "Basic Principles of Physical Fitness Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness."— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Principles of Physical Fitness Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness

2 Physical Activity and Exercise for Health and Fitness  Physical activity levels have declined  Healthy People 2010:  More than 55% of U.S. adults do not engage in recommended amounts of activity  25% are not active at all

3 Levels of Physical Activity

4 Physical Activity on a Continuum  Physical activity = any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy  Exercise = planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness  Physical fitness = a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort

5 Lifestyle Physical Activity  For health promotion:  Expend about 150 calories—equivalent to 30 minutes of brisk walking—on most days  For health promotion and weight management:  Engage in 45–60 or more minutes of activity on most days

6 Moderate Amounts of Physical Activity

7 Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness  Lifestyle physical activity improves health but may not improve fitness  A structured, formal exercise program improves physical fitness and provides even greater health improvements

8 How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?  Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity exercise  Continuous versus intermittent exercise  Low-intensity exercise improves health but may not be very beneficial for improving physical fitness

9 How Much Physical Activity Is Enough?

10 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness  Health-related fitness = physical capacities that contribute to health  Five components: 1. Cardiorespiratory endurance = the ability of the body to perform prolonged, large-muscle, dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of intensity

11 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness 2. Muscular strength = the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximum effort 3. Muscular endurance = the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to remain contracted or to contract repeatedly 4. Flexibility = the ability to move joints through their full range of motion

12 Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness 5. Body composition = the proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the body

13 Skill-Related Components of Fitness  Speed  Power  Agility  Balance  Coordination  Reaction time

14 Principles of Training: Adaptation to Stress  The human body adjusts to meet increasing demands placed on it; the greater the demand the greater the adjustment made  Particular types and amounts of exercise are most effective in making the body fit.  Four principles of successful training:adaptation

15 Specificity—Adapting to Type of Training  The body adapts to the particular type and amount of stress placed on it  To develop a particular fitness component, perform exercises specifically designed for that component

16 Progressive Overload—Adapting to Amount of Training  Placing increasing amounts of stress on the body causes adaptations that improve fitness  FITT principle for overload:  Frequency—How often  Intensity—How hard  Time—How long (duration)  Type—Mode of activity

17 Reversibility—Adapting to a Reduction in Training  Fitness improvements are lost when demands on the body are lowered  If you stop exercising, up to 50% of fitness improvements are lost within 2 months

18 Individual Differences— Limits on Adaptability  Everyone is NOT created equal from a physical standpoint  There are large individual differences in ability to improve fitness, body composition, and sports skills

19 Designing Your Own Exercise Program  Medical clearance  Fitness assessment  Setting goals  Choosing activities for a balanced program  Include activities to develop health-related components of physical fitness

20 Physical Activity Pyramid

21 Benefits of Different Programs

22 Guidelines for Training  Train the way you want your body to change  Train regularly  Get in shape gradually; do not overtrain  Warm up before exercise  Cool down after exercise  Exercise safely

23 Guidelines for Training  Listen to your body  Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts  Try training with a partner  Train your mind  Add variety and have fun  Keep your exercise program in perspective

24 Progression of an Exercise Program: Get in Shape Gradually

25 Amount of Exercise for Fitness Benefits

26 Choosing a Fitness Center  Convenience  Atmosphere  Safety  Trained personnel  Cost  Effectiveness


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