4Desired OutcomesKnow the process of “think alouds” to intentionally model and habituate the use of comprehension strategies.Identify and practice strategies that tenable students to comprehend text before, during and after the reading.Recognize and practice different ways to scaffold instruction
5What Research says about Comprehension Comprehension is the single most important factor in high achievementExplicit comprehension instruction K-12 across all curricular areas is essentialSkills and thinking processes modeled by the teacher to encourage intentional thinkingCollaboration and discussion of text with peers—strengthen comprehension
6What Research says about Comprehension Most beneficial student strategies: Comprehension monitoringCooperative learningUse of graphic and semantic organizers Question answering with immediate feedbackQuestion generation (self-questioning)Story structureSummarizingVisualization
7No one disagrees that the goal of proficient reading is to comprehend text. Moats 2002
8The goal of developing comprehension should go hand in hand with the goal of developing sound-letter knowledge……even for the youngest readers.Duke and Pearson, 2002
9Essential Components of Comprehension Decoding skillsDevelopment of sight wordsFluencyVocabularyExtensive ReadingRelating to prior knowledgePressley, 2000
10So, how can we teach students to better comprehend text? By understanding how we comprehend as we read……and by explicitly teaching students how to comprehend as they read.
14What can you Think Aloud About? PredictionsConnectionsQuestionsMental PictureBackground knowledgeInferencesImportant IdeasSummariesMonitoringFixupsMeaning levelWord level
15GratitudeThe street lights were a warm welcome from the oncoming chill of darkness. The park bench’s curvature felt familiar under his tired old spine. The wool blanket from the Salvation Army was comfortable around his shoulders and the pair of shoes he’d found in the dumpster today fit perfectly. God, he thought, isn’t life grand.Andre Hunt
16Think-alouds can provide immeasurable help. They make us slow down and take a look at our own reading processes.Wilhelm. 2001
17ACTIVITY: Think Aloud Pair up Partner # 1 reads text Think aloud before, during and after the reading..Partner #2 writes reader’s thinking
18My Thinking My Thinking Before Reading Before Reading During Reading After ReadingAfter Reading
19ACTIVITY: Think Aloud Switch roles Partner # 2 reads text Think aloud before, during and after the reading..Partner #1 writes reader’s thinking
20My Thinking My Thinking Before Reading Before Reading During Reading After ReadingAfter Reading
21Tips on Using a Think Aloud Keep practicing and the process will become easier for you over time.Prepare your think aloud in advance. Put your thoughts on post-its and keep these near the text.Use only one or two strategies first.Can be done during read aloud, shared reading, or small group instruction.
22For Reluctant ReadersHave a copy of think aloud text on overhead so that students can see the point you are “thinking about.”Use highlighters, pointers, etc. to demonstrate points of thought.Make clear connections between concepts the students understandDon’t overdo thinking. Give a few clear examples.
26A newspaper is better than a magazine, and a seashore is a better place than a street. At first, it is better to run than walk. In addition, you may have to try several times. It takes some skill, but it’s easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get close. One needs lots of room. Rain soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you will not get a second chance.
27How Can Comprehension Strategies Be Taught? Effective Comprehension strategy instruction is explicit, but not segmented or artificial.I Tell (Explanation)I Do (Modeling)We Do (Guided Practice)You Do (Application)You Show (Application)(Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001)
28Teach Comprehension Before Reading To build student background knowledge by…PreviewingPicture walkMinimal CuesClozeWhat already know – Web/KWLSubjectStructureAuthor
29Setting a purposeto respondto explore ideasto get informationto clarify thinkingto extend thinkingto enjoy and appreciateAsking questions about information or ideas related to the textPredictingIntroduce needed vocabulary
30Picture Walk Imbeds vocabulary Establishes purpose Encourages predictionAssesses prior knowledge
31Minimal Cues “Wheel of Fortune” All text as blanks or start with some cuesFocuses attention on the blending of the use phonics, syntax as connected to meaningIntroduces test and entices the readers
32Cloze Blanks for key words Focus on making meaning Forces the integration of the cueing systemsAssisted – blanks with initial soundsMeaningful use of phonics
33Modified ClozeI______ as ______ as Grandma _______ me; I ______ going to ______because of that darn _______ in the ___________.
34Assisted ClozeI’d l_______ in the soft s_____ in my b____ l___________ to his b____________.L______ and f_______, l________ and f________.
35Webbing Ideas Cow Lamb Chicken What animals live On a farm? Pig Horse Goat
36ACTIVITY: Before Reading Look at the text providedSuggest “Before Reading” activitiesPreviewSet a purposeAsk questionsPredictIntroduce needed vocabulary
37Teach Comprehension During Reading So that students can monitor their understanding by…Knowing when they understandKnowing when they don’t understandKnowing how they knowKnowing what to do aboutKnowing the rate at which to read – making adjustments
38STRATEGIES – During Reading To gain, regain, or clarify meaning Pictures what is read --VisualizationRead the textPicture the information in your brainPlan on how to draw it on paperDraw and label the picture on paper.
39ACTIVITY: Visualization Read the text, visualize and create the granod. A granod is an animal. It has a long oval-shaped body. The granod has a long neck and tail. The top of the neck, back, and tail are covered by a row of triangular-shaped plates. The granod’s head is shaped lie a long triangle. It has big eyes, and eyebrows that stick out. It also has big nostrils. Its body is covered with scales. The granod has four short leg. At the end of each leg is a foot with five long toes. Each toe has a sharp claw at its end. The granod has two wings attached to its body. These are located behind the front legs towards the top of its back. Granods may be many different colors, but usually, they are green and yellow, or red and yellow.
40STRATEGIES – During Reading Confirm or conflict with predictionsDLTADRTAConnects emotionally and intellectually to the textAllows continuous construction of meaningMovement – increases brain compatibility
41Asking questions about text “RIGHT THERE QUESTIONS” to locate specific information – show proofWhoWhatWhereWhenWhy
42Create 5 RIGHT THERE questions for: Penny Pencil was long, thin, and yellow.She was a number 2 pencil. Ahe lived inand orange pencil box on a child’s desk. She liked to draw pictures, but she didn’t like to do school work. Her favorite time of day was when the child she belonged towent home. When she was alone in her pencil box, she slept and dreamt of writing beautiful poems that would make her famous.
43Asking questions “”PUT IT TOGETHER” QUESTIONS:’ Use information from more than one sentenceCombines answers from different parts of textGives students a chance to connectText to textText to selfAuthor to text
44Use of Context Clues words that say “stop don’t look in the dictionary” If the context clue is: is, are was, were, or, such as, or means, the definition will be found AFTER the word and the context clue.If the context clue is: are known as, is known as, is called, or are called, the definition will be in front of the word you need to know the meaning of.
45Try it! _____________is water that falls to the earth as rain or snow. Water that falls to the earth is called ____________.__________ are a light snow which falls for a short time.A light snow that falls for a short time is known as ___________._____________ means to pile up.In a blizzard. Snow ___________, or piles up.
46Integrating New Concepts Connecting new information to prior knowledgeClassifying informationCategorizing
47Utilizing and Creating Graphic Organizers To create scaffolds for learning and retainingOrganize learningConnect text to:Information – prior, current, essentialLifeAuthor’s purposeText
48Teach Comprehension After Reading So that students can bring closure by…Remembering informationOrganizing informationSummarizingEvaluating ideasMaking applicationsResponding
49ACTIVITY: During Reading Look at text providedSuggest “during reading”activitesMonitoringVisualizationConfirming or conflicting’Ask questionsIntegrate informationGraphic Organizers
50STRATEGIES – After Reading Remembering InformationUse notes to understand the textAnswer questions posed before and during readingDraw conclusions based on valitdityInterpret and reflect
51STRATEGIES – After Reading Organizing InformationCreate outline of key wordsLook think speakSort and classifyCompare and contrastMake connections within and among texts
52Words to Use C/C Contrasting Words Comparing Words unlike like in contrast todifferent fromlesswhereashoweverbutas opposed to…on the other handComparing Wordslikesame asmoreSimilarlikewiseand, as well asalso, toojust as, as do, as did, as doesboth
53STRATEGIES – After Reading SummarizingMain ideasSections of the text
54Summarizing Take succinct but complete notes – key words Pull out main ideasFocus on key detailsBreak out the larger ideasLook, think, speakWrite only enough to convey the gist
55STRATEGIES – After Reading Evaluate ideasEvaluate learning in terms of original purpose for readingEvaluate texts according to criteriaAuthor's lifeAuthor’s slant/biasTimelines/time periodSources
56STRATEGIES – After Reading Making ApplicationUse informationCreateDemonstrate understanding, drama, art,charts, diagrams, reader’s theater
57STRATEGIES – After Reading RespondInterpret and reflect on the textPersonal responseReformulation
58ACTIVITY: After Reading Look at the text providedSuggest “After Reading” activitiesRemembering informationOrganizing informationSummarizingEvaluationApplicationRespond
59…there is little reading comprehension instruction in schools …there is little reading comprehension instruction in schools. In fact, comprehension is often tested, but rarely taught.Durkin, 1978, Pressley and Wharton-McDonald, 1998