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Diarrhea( >3 loose/liquid stools per day) depletes the body of needed fluids and salts leading to dehydration
Diarrhea is often caused by ingestion of the bacteria/virus/parasite through fecal-oral or direct contact.
Three severities of diarrhea include the acute watery, acute bloody, and persistent diarrhea. Acute wateryAcute BloodyPersistent CholeraDysentery/ShigellaCeliac’s IBS
Diarrhea can be osmotic, exudative, motility related, or inflammatory.
Identification of causes often begins with a stool culture.
Causes of Diarrhea Bacterial gastroenteritis Cholera Shigella Dysentery Viral gastroenteritis Norovirus Rotavirus Campylobacter Traveler’s Diarrhea-E. coli Clostridium Difficile Food poisoning S. aureus/toxins Typhoid Salmonellosis Colon cancer IBS Lactose intolerance Celiac’s disease Hormone abnormalities Alcohol
Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is an opportunistic bacteria with an AB toxin.
Shigellosis is a main cause of diarrhea with bloody stools, and is transmitted fecal-orally.
Shigella multiplies in and spreads through intestinal epithelial cells.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and children all over the world.
Rotavirus is one of the few causes of diarrhea with a preventative measure of a vaccine, recently developed.
There are several different simple steps to prevent transmission.
Diarrhea is usually effectively treated by restoring fluid and salt balance
What are organizations doing? World Health Organization conducts research, develop health interventions, and try to manage diarrhea in developing countries.
References http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/index. html http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs330/en/index. html http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/hygiene/ldc/diarrheal_dise ases.html http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/hygiene/ldc/diarrheal_dise ases.html http://medical- dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Diarrheal+diseases http://medical- dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Diarrheal+diseases http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/travelersdiarrh ea_g.htm http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/travelersdiarrh ea_g.htm http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/727050_3 http://ocw.tufts.edu/Content/6/CourseHome/207201/207203
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