2Classification of food borne diseases Food borne diseases are classified into:Food borne infectionsFood borne intoxications
3Food InfectionAny infectious illness caused by eating food contaminated with viruses, bacteria, worms, or other organisms.
4Food borne infectionsFood borne infections are caused by the entrance of pathogenic microorganisms contaminating food into the body, and the reaction of the body tissues to their presence.These can either be fungal, bacterial, viral or parasiticFood borne infections tend to have long incubation periods and are usually characterized by fever
5Food Borne Infections cont.. Bacterial food borne infections include Cholera, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, shigellosis, Yersiniosis Escherichia coli infection Campylobacteriosis, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeriosis Mycotoxic food borne infections include ( aflatoxin , Ochratoxins and T2 toxin ) Viral food borne infections include hepatitis A , Norwak virus and poliomyelitis virus
6salmonellosis Symptoms There are many different kinds of these bacteria,SalmonellaSerotype Typhimurium and Salmonella serotype Enteritidis are the most common type responsible for infectionsSymptomsdiarrheaFeverabdominal crampschronic arthritis.They develop 12 to 72 hours after infection, and the illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days . A small number of people who are infected with salmonellosis develop Reiter's syndrome.Reiter syndrome is a type of reactive arthritis, it happens as a reaction to a bacterial infection in the body.
7Source of infectionFood: Contaminated eggs, poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk or juice, cheese, contaminated raw fruits and vegetables (alfalfa sprouts, melons), spices, and nutsAnimals and their environment: including raw or lightly cooked eggs, undercooked ground beef or poultry, and unpasteurized milknot washing hand proper
8Pathogenesis:After a short incubation period of a few hours to one day, the bacteria multiply in the intestinal lumen, causing an intestinal inflammation. Most people with salmonellosis develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection. Diarrhea is often mucopurulent (containing mucus or pus) and bloody. In most cases, the illness lasts four to seven days, and most people recover without treatment. In some cases, though, the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient becomes dangerously dehydrated and must be taken to a hospital. In severe cases, the Salmonella infection may spread from the intestines to the blood stream, and then to other body sites, and can cause death, unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics
9Campylobacteriosis:Campylobacter are a group of tiny strictly micro-aerophilic curved or spiral gram negative rods Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli ,Campylobacter jejuni occur in large numbers in cattle feces, and poultry as normal flora.Symptoms :The most common symptom of a Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which is often bloody . Infection occurs 2 to 5 days after a person eats contaminated food , but may take up to 10 days to appear.FeverVomitingAbdominal painHeadacheMuscle pain
10Source of infection poultry meat stool of an ill dog or cat cross-contaminationof other foods4.Cow products
11Pathogenesis:To initiate infection the organism must penetrate the gastrointestinal mucus, which it does by using its high motility and spiral shape. The bacteria must then adhere to the gut enterocytes and once adhered can then induce diarrhea by toxin release. C. jejune releases several different toxins which vary from strain to strain, mainly enterotoxin and cytotoxins, and these correlate with the severity of the enteritis.
12Symptoms Escherichia coli O157:H7 Escherichia coli are potential food poisoning pathogens which are widely distributed in food environments. E.coli is a normal flora in the intestine of most animals & human as well.Symptomsusually begin two to five days after infectionsudden onset of crampsabdominal paindiarrhea within 24 hours. Diarrhea will become increasingly watery, and then noticeably bloody.
13Source of infection Undercooked beef meat unpasteurized (raw) milk Contaminated waterFeces of infected people
14Pathogenesis:Once a pathogenic bacterium has gained entry to a host, it has to have some means of attaching itself to host tissues. Most pathogenic bacteria have surface molecules called adhesions or ligands that bind to preexisting cellular receptors. However, enteropathogenic E. coli manufacture receptors and inject them into the host cells. The bacteria then bind to these receptors. Once many enteropathogenic bacteria have adhered to the intestinal lining, symptoms of the infection (diarrhea) commence.
15Symptoms Shigellosis (Bacillary dysentery) Shigellosis is caused by members of the genus Shigella. The species involved include Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri. All strains of shigella posses potent exotoxins which are carbohydrate-lipid protein complexes.SymptomsMost people who are infected with Shigella develop:feverStomach crampsBloody Diarrhea contain mucus
16Source of infection They are the normal habitat of intestinal tract and in thestools of infected people,where personal hygiene is poor
17PathogenesisShigella infection is typically by ingestion (fecal–oral contamination); depending on age and condition of the host, fewer than 100 bacterial cells can be enough to cause an infection.Shigella causes dysentery that results in the destruction of the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa in the cecum and rectum. Some strains produce the enterotoxin shiga toxin, which is similar to the Vero toxin of E. coli O157:H7 and other Vero toxin-producing E. coli. Both shiga toxin and verotoxin are associated with causing hemolytic uremic syndrome.
18Cholera Cholera Symptoms Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera,is usually found in food or water contaminated by feces from a person with the infection.Cholera SymptomsSymptoms of cholera can begin as soon as a few hours or as long as five days after infection.watery diarrheavomitingdehydration
19Source of infection Municipal water supplies Ice made from municipal waterFoods and drinks sold by street vendorsVegetables grown with water containing human wastesRaw or undercooked fish and seafood caught in waterspolluted with sewage
20Prevention Practice meticulous personal hygiene Be sure to clean and sanitize all imported and domestic fruits or vegetable especially if beef is being served. This requires being very mindful of the surfaces (especially cutting boards) and the utensils used during meal preparation that have come in contact with uncooked beef and other meats. This even means that utensils used to transport raw meat to the cooking surfaces should not be the same that are later used to remove the cooked meat (or other foodstuffs) from the cooking surfacesDo not expose the food , cover them properlyProper handling, preparation and food storageDo not leave eggs, meats, poultry, seafood, or milk for extended periods of time at room temperature.Cocking meat properly and using thermometerKeep hot food warm and cold food cool