Presentation on theme: "AEB 2007 A revision guide for GCSE Geography To advance slide click here."— Presentation transcript:
AEB 2007 A revision guide for GCSE Geography To advance slide click here
Why do we study population? The world’s population is growing…. Will we have enough food water and shelter for everyone? What methods does the world use to control its population? Do they work? Can we predict what will happen to help us plan for the future?
How to use this Population Revision Lesson Click on the topic of your choice on the following slide Read through the animated section to the end Then choose either to return to the main menu and choose another topic, or exit and try a quiz. Finally look at the example GCSE questions on Population and have a go at being an examiner!
Migration Population structure Population distribution Demographic Transition Model Population change Click on the population topic of your choice
Population distribution Key words and definitions Population density – The number of people per square km Dense – Many people per square km Sparse – Few people per square km Distribution – How people are spread out
People are not evenly spread out across the world – some places have more people (dense populations) and some places have only a few people (sparse populations). Look at the map below that highlights some of these places. First let’s highlight some areas of dense populationNow some areas of sparse population Dense Sparse
Let’s look at why some of these places are densely and some sparsely populated. Population distribution is affected by a number of different environmental and human factors. If these factors result in a dense population they are called positive factors. That is because they are good things that make it easier for people to survive and thrive. Factors that make it difficult for people to live are called negative factors and can lead to sparse populations.
Distribution of Population As well as the distribution of population being as either dense or sparse we can also look at any patterns that it might show. People can be distributed evenly (in a uniform pattern). Or clustered together (in a nucleated pattern) Or, as is more common, be a more random pattern (somewhere between uniform and nucleated)
The positive Factors will be the opposite of the negative factors Positive factorsNegative factors Fertile soilsInfertile soils Moderate climateExtreme climate Flat landMountainous / steep slopes Good communicationsLack of communications Reliable water supplyUnreliable water supply Raw materialsFew or no raw materials Political stabilityPolitically unstable These tend to lead to dense populationsThese tend to lead to sparse populations
Let’s look back at our map and see how these factors apply to the population distribution of the world….. Amazon rainforest – extreme climate – hot and wet (negative factor so sparse population. Northern Canada/Greenland – extreme climate – very cold sparse population Sahara Desert too hot and dry, poor soils so sparse population Himalayan mountains – too steep, difficult communications, cold (Sparse population) Bangladesh – low lying, rich fertile soil, warm and wet (ideal for crops) good water supply dense population Western Europe, mild climate, good communications, lots of jobs dense population
Now let’s look at Population Density You will remember that Population density is the number of people per square km We can calculate the population density of a place using the following formula…….. Population Density = Number of people Area
Let’s try some calculations of Population density….. Remember Population Density = Number of people Area CountryPopulation (millions) Area (Square Kms) Density Japan France Australia Japan (don’t forget all those zeros for the millions) divided by is So we can write the density as Similarly for France divided by would give us 94.8 And for Australia divided by would give us 2.7
CountryPopulation (millions) Area (Square Kms) Density Japan France Australia From this table we can see than Japan has the highest density of population and Australia the lowest. However you must remember these figures are averages for the whole country – there will be places of high and low densities within both of these countries. It is also important to remember that a high population does not always mean a high density of population if that country has a lot of land to spread the people out (distribute them). A good example of this is China with a growing population of 1322 million (over 10 times larger than Japan), but with an area of square kms the population density is just over 137 – much less than Japan. Also the United States has a population of nearly 300million but being over 9 million square kms its density is only 31.
For your GCSE you will need to be able to talk about case studies that follow these patterns of population distribution. You may often be asked to provide examples from either an MEDC, an LEDC, or both. Therefore the following pages give you a brief overview of the population distribution of two very different countries – Japan and Brazil. You may like to research further into these case studies – remember the more detail you have the better the possibilities for a higher grade. To help you with this I have pointed you towards some useful websites (active and relevant at the time of writing). However you will find many other such useful sites available. Brazil
JAPAN (MEDC) The population density of Japan is about 1 ½ times more than the UK The Northern Island of Hokkaido is sparsely populated due to the cold climate there. The largest island of Honshu is densely populated and contains many large cities including Tokyo. However most of the population is located in the thin coastal strip around the edge of the island as this only suitable flat land available for building – the interior of the island is too mountainous. ASIA Hokkaido Honshu Tokyo
BRAZIL (LEDC) The continent of South America BRAZIL Brazil is divided into 5 regions each with very different densities of Population
The North has a low population density – much of the area is Amazon rainforest. There are signs of population growth due to the new jobs in the area like those in the Carajas mine. The North East has 30% of the Brazilian population but is suffering from drought. People are migrating to cities in the South East The South East has Brazil’s highest population densities. The area is rich in minerals and agriculture and has the industrialised cites of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. It has the fastest growth of population due to migration from other areas. The South has the second highest population densities. It is a highly developed region with good agriculture and manufacturing The Centre West is a very sparsely populated region of grassland called the Mato Grosso. The government has located the new capital city of Brazilla here to attract more people into the area. Population Distribution of Brazil
Some possible site for further information about population distribution f_Brazilhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demography_o f_Brazil ?country=Japanhttp://www.worldinfozone.com/country.php ?country=Japan
That completes this section on Population Distribution Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt
Demographic Transition Model
The Demographic Transition Model (DTM) is used to describe population growth It can be used to study how patterns in births and deaths change as a country develops. It shows the way the total population of an area changes over time and can be used to predict future needs such as education and health.
In order to understand the DTM we need to be familiar with certain terms ….. Birth rate – The number of babies born per 1000 people Death rate – The number of people dying for every 1000 people Natural increase – The difference between the birth and death rates (that is if there are more births than deaths) – there will be a natural decrease if there are more deaths than births. Natural increaseNatural decrease
Let’s first look at how a DTM is drawn up. The x axis is for time TIME The y axis is for birth and death rates (per 1000) Birth/Death rates per Now lets draw in the birth rate Birth rate Now the death rate Death rate We can then work out the total population (birth rate minus death rate) Total population
TIME Birth/Death rates per 1000 Birth rate Death rate Total population Two other things you can see on a DTM are the natural increase and natural decrease. The difference between the birth and death rates). Natural increase Natural decrease
The DTM can be divided into 4 stages. These stages describe what the total population is doing at that time and is sometimes given the following names… Stage one – High fluctuation Stage two – Early expanding Stage three – Late expanding Stage four – Low fluctuating
We can detail these stages into a table StageOneTwoThreeFour Birth rateHigh FallingLow but varies Death rateHigh and varies FallsLow Population changes SmallRapid increase Slower growth Stable Example places Amazon Rainforest Kenya Malawi ChinaJapan UK Quality of life Subsistence farming, high infant mortality rate Better food supply and health care but no birth control Better living conditions more industry and jobs Good standard of living small families long life expectancy education for all
TIME Birth/Death rates per 1000 Birth rate Death rate Total population StageOneTwoThreeFour Birth rateHigh FallingLow but varies Death rateHigh and variesFallsLow Population changes SmallRapid increaseSlower growthStable Example places Amazon Rainforest Kenya Malawi ChinaJapan UK Quality of lifeSubsistence farming, high infant mortality rate Better food supply and health care but no birth control Better living conditions more industry and jobs Good standard of living small families long life expectancy education for all Stage oneStage fourStage threeStage two We can draw these four stages of development on to the DTM
TIME Birth/Death rates per 1000 Birth rate Death rate Total population Stage oneStage fourStage threeStage two Stage five has been added to the DTM to show the recent decline in population in some MEDCs where the birth rate continues to drop and falls below the death rate resulting in a declining population. Stage five An example of a country that could be said to be in stage five on the DTM is Germany.
StageOneTwoThreeFour Birth rateHigh FallingLow but varies Death rateHigh and variesFallsLow Population changes SmallRapid increaseSlower growthStable Example placesAmazon RainforestKenya Malawi ChinaJapan UK Quality of lifeSubsistence farming, high infant mortality rate Better food supply and health care but no birth control Better living conditions more industry and jobs Good standard of living small families long life expectancy education for all The DTM was originally made by looking at countries that had population records spanning about 200 years. You can fit different time periods from the UK into the four stages of the DTM that reflect the countries development over the last 250 years UKBefore
Limitations of the DTM It is like any other model – it is useful but cannot be relied upon. Not all countries will follow the model. Enforced population control (like the Chinese one child policy) have forced the birth rate to drop quicker than in the model To understand a little more about the reasons for changes in some of the factors shown on the DTM go to the population change section
That completes this section on the Demographic Transition Model Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt
Population Structure The composition of population in terms of age groups and gender
In order to understand population structure there are several definitions that you must remember. Birth rate – The number of babies born per 1000 people Death rate – The number of deaths per 1000 people Infant mortality – Death of children under the age of 1 year Life expectancy – The average length of life Economically active – People of working age (16-65 in the UK) Child dependants – People under the age of 16 Elderly dependants – People over 65 years (pensioners) Dependency ratio – The number of dependants for every economically active person
Population pyramid A population pyramid is a graph that shows you the population structure of a place. They can be easy to read if you know what you’re looking for. The population is divided into 5 year age groups and a horizontal bar drawn that shows the percentage of people in each age group. The males are drawn on the left and the females on the right. It is because of their shape that these graphs are often called population pyramids.
How to draw a population pyramid Using these figures for percentages of males and females within the age groups given, you plot a simple sideways bar chart for each value. The result should look like this
Steps to read a population pyramid Note the title – are you looking at a whole country or a special part of one eg. Rural or urban populations Look at the general shape Note the proportions of the working population and the elderly and child dependants (ages , above 65 and 0-16) Look at the height of the pyramid (indicates life expectancy) Look at the sex ratio (the proportion of males to females)
Let’s look at an example of all these points to note on a pyramid. 5 year age bands % of total male population % of total female population MaleFemale Elderly - retired Working population Children
Dependency ratio Dependency ratio is the number of dependants to the number of people in the working population and can be expressed like this: Dependency ratio = Number of dependents Number of working population If the ratio is 1 then there is one dependant for every worker. The higher the figure the more people depend on fewer workers.
So what can population pyramids tell us about a country… 5 year age bands % of total male population % of total female population MaleFemale Elderly - retired Working population Children First let us look at a typical pyramid for an LEDC (Less Economically Developed Country) This is the Population Pyramid for Brazil Narrow top showing few old people. A country with a low life expectancy A wide base (high proportion of young people) – high birth rate A rapidly narrowing pyramid due to limited life expectancy
Now let’s look at the pyramid of an MEDC… this one is for France. 5 year age bands % of total male population % of total female population Working population (15-65) Elderly – retired Over 65 Children Under 16 Male Female Here the pyramid is wider at the top because of the longer lifer expectancy. You can also see how for this age range there are more women than men. Pyramid here doesn’t taper – working population has a life expectancy beyond 65 Narrow base – smaller proportion of young people – low birth rate
So looking at the general trends MEDC LEDC MEDC MEDC pyramid – wider at the top as more people reach old age Straighter sides due to lower death rate Narrow base because of low birth rate LEDC Base of LEDC pyramid – wider – high birth rate LEDC pyramid shorter or very narrow at top – lower life expectancy LEDC pyramid narrows up through working population – again due to lower life expectancy You can see more about the reasons for this in the Population Change section
We can relate population pyramids to the four sections of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) Typical pyramid shape For more about the DTM read the separate section
That completes this section on Population Structure Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt
Migration Migration is the movement of people from one place to another
Remember these terms… Emigrant – someone moving OUT of a country Migrant – a person moving from one area to another Immigrant – someone moving INTO a country
Migration can be classified by distance International migration – when people move from one country to another Regional migration – when people move to another region inside the same country Local migration – when people move a short distance within the same region
Migration can also be classified by reason or timescale… Migration may be forced or voluntary Migration may be temporary or permanent Remember migration will affect both the area the migrants come from as well as the are they are going to.
People migrate due to a combination of push and pull factors Push factors – conditions where they are make people think they should move to improve their quality of life Pull factors – Opportunities in another area attract people to move there for a better quality of life
Let us consider what some of these push and pull factors might be Push factorsPull factors Lack of job opportunitiesMany job opportunities Poor housingBetter quality housing War or civil strifePolitical stability Poor schoolsGood educational opportunities Lack of health careGood affordable health care for all Poor environment – pollution, crime, traffic Green areas Family breakdownPresence of family or friends Personal restlessnessDesire for new experiences Loss of communityArea with a sense of community
So people may migrate for very different reasons… Some common migration patterns with examples.. 1.Economic migrants (searching for a higher standard of living) e.g. Mexicans to USA 2.Rural to urban migration (movement from the countryside to the city) e.g. Brazil 3.Counter-urbanisation (Movement from the city to the countryside) e.g. Inner London to Kent 4.Refugees (people forced to leave their country due to war, hardship, natural disaster or persecution) e.g. Kosovans moving from Albania to UK in 1999 due to war
Do note these terms – the names are very similar and can be confusing. Urbanisation – Populations in towns or cities increasing due to migration from rural areas Deurbanisation – a movement of people out of the urban environment Reurbanisation – the movement of people back into a previously urbanised area (possibly due to regeneration of that area)
Case Studies You need to know details about real life examples of migrations. You will need to know the type of migration the push and pull factors the effects on the area they migrants go to and the affects the migrants have on the area they have left
Here are some brief notes about migration within Europe – you will need to research more details on your own International migration of workers from Poland into Germany. Germany is a wealthy country with a good standard of living. Poland is less developed and many people have tried to cross the boarder illegally in hope of a better life. Push factors: Poland is poor GDP only $3500, High unemployment (over 11%) low standard of living, poor health and high infant mortality Pull factors: Germany has jobs with much higher incomes, education, health care and good quality housing Illegal entry: Thousands of migrants enter Germany by crossing the River Oder. Immigrants pay smugglers up to $1000 each to be taken across the border. Most find work on farms, in bars, hotels or on construction sites. The effect: Locals resent the competition for their jobs. Has leas to increase racism. Germany has very strict immigration laws to try to control the flow of migrants.
That completes this section on Migration Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt
Population Change Populations may increase and decrease over time Population change may be due to the balance of births and deaths or to migration, often it is a combination of both
World Population Growth The worlds population is estimated to be about six billion. The total has doubled since 1960 Over 90% of this growth is in LEDCs This rapid rise in the world population is called the population explosion.
Why is there a difference in growth between MEDCs and LEDCs? Population growth rates are highest in LEDCs where birth rates are high and death rates are falling Life expectancy is growing due to improving health care and living conditions. See section on the Demographic Transitions model
The following slide highlights some of the reasons birth and death rates may rise or fall. Make sure you are familiar with all these concepts. Look up any of these that you are unsure about. Any good Geography text book will help you with this or try this web site
Ways to reduce birth and death rates Lack of education Low status of women Religion and tradition High infant mortality Low incomes Lack of contraception Government policy Government policy High incomes Family planning/contraceptives Higher status of women Low infant mortality Child labour laws Education Birth Rate High Low Death Rate High Low Lack of health care Inadequate diet Lack of clean water Poor sanitation War Medical progress Sanitation Clean water supply Peace Good diet
Population Policies Many countries are trying to decrease birth rates through the introduction of family planning. Bangladesh has been successful combining this with increased education of women Education for women will.. Provide them with more information on birth control Lengthen the time girls spend at school raises the age of marriage and so delays the child-bearing years.
A more radical approach to population control was the introduction of the one child policy in China 25% of the world’s population is Chinese In 1979 the government introduced the one child policy People who have more than 1 child pay big fines. Only single children get free education, health care and pensions
Effects of the Policy Has resulted in a high rate of infanticide (killing newborn babies) 90% of which were female as Chinese tradition values boys above girls But without the policy it is estimated there would be an extra 320million people in China Recently the government has started to relax this policy and focus more on the education method.
Population problems Young dependants put a strain on LEDCs…. High levels of education and health care are needed for children and babies. Most LEDCs cannot afford this Their populations will continue to grow as these young people reach child bearing age. A rapidly growing population needs housing and they will need employment as they grow up. These are serious concerns for LEDCs
Ageing populations – a population problem for MEDCs High levels of health care are needed – long term care of the elderly can be expensive. Facilities such as public transport and sheltered housing will be needed. As more of the working population retire and move into this group of elderly dependants it will put an even greater strain on the ability of the country to pay pensions and provide for this section of the population. With declining birth rates some MEDCs encourage workers to migrate into the country to help relieve this financial burden. However can you think of companies or organisations that would welcome this ‘grey revolution’?
That completes this section on Population Change Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population. Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt
Thank you for using this revision tool to help with your studies of Population. I hope you have found it useful. Goodbye