A revision guide for GCSE Geography

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A revision guide for GCSE Geography

Why do we study population?
The world’s population is growing…. What methods does the world use to control its population? Do they work? Can we predict what will happen to help us plan for the future? Will we have enough food water and shelter for everyone?

How to use this Population Revision Lesson
Click on the topic of your choice on the following slide Read through the animated section to the end Then choose either to return to the main menu and choose another topic, or exit and try a quiz. Finally look at the example GCSE questions on Population and have a go at being an examiner!

Population distribution
Population structure Population distribution Click on the population topic of your choice Demographic Transition Model Migration Population change

Population distribution
Key words and definitions Population density – The number of people per square km Dense – Many people per square km Sparse – Few people per square km Distribution – How people are spread out

People are not evenly spread out across the world – some places have more people (dense populations) and some places have only a few people (sparse populations). Look at the map below that highlights some of these places. Dense Sparse First let’s highlight some areas of dense population Now some areas of sparse population

Let’s look at why some of these places are densely and some sparsely populated.
Population distribution is affected by a number of different environmental and human factors. If these factors result in a dense population they are called positive factors. That is because they are good things that make it easier for people to survive and thrive. Factors that make it difficult for people to live are called negative factors and can lead to sparse populations.

Distribution of Population
As well as the distribution of population being as either dense or sparse we can also look at any patterns that it might show. People can be distributed evenly (in a uniform pattern). Or clustered together (in a nucleated pattern) Or, as is more common, be a more random pattern (somewhere between uniform and nucleated)

The positive Factors will be the opposite of the negative factors
Fertile soils Infertile soils Moderate climate Extreme climate Flat land Mountainous / steep slopes Good communications Lack of communications Reliable water supply Unreliable water supply Raw materials Few or no raw materials Political stability Politically unstable These tend to lead to dense populations These tend to lead to sparse populations

Let’s look back at our map and see how these factors apply to the population distribution of the world….. Northern Canada/Greenland – extreme climate – very cold  sparse population Himalayan mountains – too steep, difficult communications, cold (Sparse population) Bangladesh – low lying, rich fertile soil, warm and wet (ideal for crops) good water supply  dense population Sahara Desert too hot and dry, poor soils so sparse population Amazon rainforest – extreme climate – hot and wet (negative factor so sparse population. Western Europe, mild climate, good communications, lots of jobs  dense population

Now let’s look at Population Density
You will remember that Population density is the number of people per square km We can calculate the population density of a place using the following formula…….. Number of people Population Density = Area

Let’s try some calculations of Population density…..
Remember Population Density = Number of people Area Country Population (millions) Area (Square Kms) Density Japan 125 244100 512.1 France 64 674843 94.8 Australia 21 2.7 Similarly for France divided by would give us 94.8 Japan (don’t forget all those zeros for the millions) And for Australia divided by would give us 2.7 244100 divided by is So we can write the density as 512.1

Country Population (millions) Area (Square Kms) Density Japan 125 244100 512.1 France 64 674843 94.8 Australia 21 2.7 From this table we can see than Japan has the highest density of population and Australia the lowest. However you must remember these figures are averages for the whole country – there will be places of high and low densities within both of these countries. It is also important to remember that a high population does not always mean a high density of population if that country has a lot of land to spread the people out (distribute them). A good example of this is China with a growing population of 1322 million (over 10 times larger than Japan), but with an area of square kms the population density is just over 137 – much less than Japan. Also the United States has a population of nearly 300million but being over 9 million square kms its density is only 31.

For your GCSE you will need to be able to talk about case studies that follow these patterns of population distribution. You may often be asked to provide examples from either an MEDC, an LEDC, or both. Therefore the following pages give you a brief overview of the population distribution of two very different countries – Japan and Brazil. You may like to research further into these case studies – remember the more detail you have the better the possibilities for a higher grade. To help you with this I have pointed you towards some useful websites (active and relevant at the time of writing). However you will find many other such useful sites available. Brazil

JAPAN (MEDC) The population density of Japan is about 1 ½ times more than the UK The Northern Island of Hokkaido is sparsely populated due to the cold climate there. The largest island of Honshu is densely populated and contains many large cities including Tokyo. However most of the population is located in the thin coastal strip around the edge of the island as this only suitable flat land available for building – the interior of the island is too mountainous. Hokkaido ASIA Honshu Tokyo

BRAZIL (LEDC) BRAZIL Brazil is divided into 5 regions each with very different densities of Population The continent of South America

Population Distribution of Brazil
The North East has 30% of the Brazilian population but is suffering from drought. People are migrating to cities in the South East The North has a low population density – much of the area is Amazon rainforest. There are signs of population growth due to the new jobs in the area like those in the Carajas mine. The South East has Brazil’s highest population densities. The area is rich in minerals and agriculture and has the industrialised cites of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. It has the fastest growth of population due to migration from other areas. The Centre West is a very sparsely populated region of grassland called the Mato Grosso. The government has located the new capital city of Brazilla here to attract more people into the area. The South has the second highest population densities. It is a highly developed region with good agriculture and manufacturing

Some possible site for further information about population distribution

That completes this section on Population Distribution
Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population.

Demographic Transition Model

The Demographic Transition Model (DTM) is used to describe population growth
It can be used to study how patterns in births and deaths change as a country develops. It shows the way the total population of an area changes over time and can be used to predict future needs such as education and health.

In order to understand the DTM we need to be familiar with certain terms…..
Birth rate – The number of babies born per 1000 people Death rate – The number of people dying for every 1000 people Natural increase – The difference between the birth and death rates (that is if there are more births than deaths) – there will be a natural decrease if there are more deaths than births. Natural increase Natural decrease

Let’s first look at how a DTM is drawn up.
Birth rate Death rate Total population 25 Birth/Death rates per 1000 15 5 TIME The x axis is for time The y axis is for birth and death rates (per 1000) Now lets draw in the birth rate We can then work out the total population (birth rate minus death rate) Now the death rate

Two other things you can see on a DTM are the natural increase and natural decrease. The difference between the birth and death rates). Natural increase Total population Birth/Death rates per 1000 Natural decrease Death rate Birth rate TIME

The DTM can be divided into 4 stages.
These stages describe what the total population is doing at that time and is sometimes given the following names… Stage one – High fluctuation Stage two – Early expanding Stage three – Late expanding Stage four – Low fluctuating

We can detail these stages into a table
One Two Three Four Birth rate High Falling Low but varies Death rate High and varies Falls Low Population changes Small Rapid increase Slower growth Stable Example places Amazon Rainforest Kenya Malawi China Japan UK Quality of life Subsistence farming, high infant mortality rate Better food supply and health care but no birth control Better living conditions more industry and jobs Good standard of living small families long life expectancy education for all

We can draw these four stages of development on to the DTM
Total population Birth/Death rates per 1000 Death rate Birth rate Stage one Stage two Stage three Stage four TIME Stage One Two Three Four Birth rate High Falling Low but varies Death rate High and varies Falls Low Population changes Small Rapid increase Slower growth Stable Example places Amazon Rainforest Kenya Malawi China Japan UK Quality of life Subsistence farming, high infant mortality rate Better food supply and health care but no birth control Better living conditions more industry and jobs Good standard of living small families long life expectancy education for all We can draw these four stages of development on to the DTM

Total population Birth/Death rates per 1000 Death rate Birth rate Stage one Stage two Stage three Stage four Stage five TIME Stage five has been added to the DTM to show the recent decline in population in some MEDCs where the birth rate continues to drop and falls below the death rate resulting in a declining population. An example of a country that could be said to be in stage five on the DTM is Germany.

The DTM was originally made by looking at countries that had population records spanning about 200 years. You can fit different time periods from the UK into the four stages of the DTM that reflect the countries development over the last 250 years Stage One Two Three Four Birth rate High Falling Low but varies Death rate High and varies Falls Low Population changes Small Rapid increase Slower growth Stable Example places Amazon Rainforest Kenya Malawi China Japan UK Quality of life Subsistence farming, high infant mortality rate Better food supply and health care but no birth control Better living conditions more industry and jobs Good standard of living small families long life expectancy education for all UK Before 1750

Limitations of the DTM It is like any other model – it is useful but cannot be relied upon. Not all countries will follow the model. Enforced population control (like the Chinese one child policy) have forced the birth rate to drop quicker than in the model To understand a little more about the reasons for changes in some of the factors shown on the DTM go to the population change section

That completes this section on the Demographic Transition Model
Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population.

The composition of population in terms of age groups and gender
Population Structure The composition of population in terms of age groups and gender

In order to understand population structure there are several definitions that you must remember.
Birth rate – The number of babies born per 1000 people Death rate – The number of deaths per 1000 people Infant mortality – Death of children under the age of 1 year Life expectancy – The average length of life Economically active – People of working age (16-65 in the UK) Child dependants – People under the age of 16 Elderly dependants – People over 65 years (pensioners) Dependency ratio – The number of dependants for every economically active person

Population pyramid A population pyramid is a graph that shows you the population structure of a place. They can be easy to read if you know what you’re looking for. The population is divided into 5 year age groups and a horizontal bar drawn that shows the percentage of people in each age group. The males are drawn on the left and the females on the right. It is because of their shape that these graphs are often called population pyramids.

How to draw a population pyramid
Using these figures for percentages of males and females within the age groups given, you plot a simple sideways bar chart for each value. The result should look like this

Steps to read a population pyramid
Note the title – are you looking at a whole country or a special part of one eg. Rural or urban populations Look at the general shape Note the proportions of the working population and the elderly and child dependants (ages 17-65, above 65 and 0-16) Look at the height of the pyramid (indicates life expectancy) Look at the sex ratio (the proportion of males to females)

Let’s look at an example of all these points to note on a pyramid.
5 year age bands Male Female Elderly - retired Working population Children % of total male population % of total female population

Dependency ratio Dependency ratio is the number of dependants to the number of people in the working population and can be expressed like this: Dependency ratio = Number of dependents Number of working population If the ratio is 1 then there is one dependant for every worker. The higher the figure the more people depend on fewer workers.

So what can population pyramids tell us about a country…
This is the Population Pyramid for Brazil So what can population pyramids tell us about a country… 5 year age bands Narrow top showing few old people. A country with a low life expectancy First let us look at a typical pyramid for an LEDC (Less Economically Developed Country) Male Female Elderly - retired A rapidly narrowing pyramid due to limited life expectancy Working population A wide base (high proportion of young people) – high birth rate Children % of total male population % of total female population

Now let’s look at the pyramid of an MEDC… this one is for France.
Here the pyramid is wider at the top because of the longer lifer expectancy. You can also see how for this age range there are more women than men. 5 year age bands Female Male Elderly – retired Over 65 Pyramid here doesn’t taper – working population has a life expectancy beyond 65 Working population (15-65) Children Under 16 Narrow base – smaller proportion of young people – low birth rate % of total female population % of total male population

So looking at the general trends
MEDC LEDC MEDC MEDC pyramid – wider at the top as more people reach old age Straighter sides due to lower death rate Narrow base because of low birth rate LEDC Base of LEDC pyramid – wider – high birth rate LEDC pyramid shorter or very narrow at top – lower life expectancy LEDC pyramid narrows up through working population – again due to lower life expectancy You can see more about the reasons for this in the Population Change section

We can relate population pyramids to the four sections of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
For more about the DTM read the separate section Typical pyramid shape 

That completes this section on Population Structure
Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population.

Migration Migration is the movement of people from one place to another

Remember these terms… Emigrant – someone moving OUT of a country
Migrant – a person moving from one area to another Immigrant – someone moving INTO a country

Migration can be classified by distance
International migration – when people move from one country to another Regional migration – when people move to another region inside the same country Local migration – when people move a short distance within the same region

Migration can also be classified by reason or timescale…
Migration may be forced or voluntary Migration may be temporary or permanent Remember migration will affect both the area the migrants come from as well as the are they are going to.

People migrate due to a combination of push and pull factors
Push factors – conditions where they are make people think they should move to improve their quality of life Pull factors – Opportunities in another area attract people to move there for a better quality of life

Let us consider what some of these push and pull factors might be
Push factors Pull factors Lack of job opportunities Many job opportunities Poor housing Better quality housing War or civil strife Political stability Poor schools Good educational opportunities Lack of health care Good affordable health care for all Poor environment – pollution, crime, traffic Green areas Family breakdown Presence of family or friends Personal restlessness Desire for new experiences Loss of community Area with a sense of community

So people may migrate for very different reasons…
Some common migration patterns with examples.. Economic migrants (searching for a higher standard of living) e.g. Mexicans to USA Rural to urban migration (movement from the countryside to the city) e.g. Brazil Counter-urbanisation (Movement from the city to the countryside) e.g. Inner London to Kent Refugees (people forced to leave their country due to war, hardship, natural disaster or persecution) e.g. Kosovans moving from Albania to UK in 1999 due to war

Do note these terms – the names are very similar and can be confusing.
Urbanisation – Populations in towns or cities increasing due to migration from rural areas Deurbanisation – a movement of people out of the urban environment Reurbanisation – the movement of people back into a previously urbanised area (possibly due to regeneration of that area)

Case Studies You need to know details about real life examples of migrations. You will need to know the type of migration the push and pull factors the effects on the area they migrants go to and the affects the migrants have on the area they have left

Here are some brief notes about migration within Europe – you will need to research more details on your own International migration of workers from Poland into Germany. Germany is a wealthy country with a good standard of living. Poland is less developed and many people have tried to cross the boarder illegally in hope of a better life. Push factors: Poland is poor GDP only \$3500, High unemployment (over 11%) low standard of living, poor health and high infant mortality Pull factors: Germany has jobs with much higher incomes, education, health care and good quality housing Illegal entry: Thousands of migrants enter Germany by crossing the River Oder. Immigrants pay smugglers up to \$1000 each to be taken across the border. Most find work on farms, in bars, hotels or on construction sites. The effect: Locals resent the competition for their jobs. Has leas to increase racism. Germany has very strict immigration laws to try to control the flow of migrants.

That completes this section on Migration
Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population.

Population Change Populations may increase and decrease over time
Population change may be due to the balance of births and deaths or to migration, often it is a combination of both

World Population Growth
The worlds population is estimated to be about six billion. The total has doubled since 1960 Over 90% of this growth is in LEDCs This rapid rise in the world population is called the population explosion.

Why is there a difference in growth between MEDCs and LEDCs?
Population growth rates are highest in LEDCs where birth rates are high and death rates are falling Life expectancy is growing due to improving health care and living conditions. See section on the Demographic Transitions model

Make sure you are familiar with all these concepts.
The following slide highlights some of the reasons birth and death rates may rise or fall. Make sure you are familiar with all these concepts. Look up any of these that you are unsure about. Any good Geography text book will help you with this or try this web site

Ways to reduce birth and death rates
Lack of education Low status of women Religion and tradition High infant mortality Low incomes Lack of contraception Government policy High incomes Family planning/contraceptives Higher status of women Low infant mortality Child labour laws Education Lack of health care Inadequate diet Lack of clean water Poor sanitation War Medical progress Sanitation Clean water supply Peace Good diet High High Birth Rate Death Rate Low Low

Population Policies Many countries are trying to decrease birth rates through the introduction of family planning. Bangladesh has been successful combining this with increased education of women Education for women will.. Provide them with more information on birth control Lengthen the time girls spend at school raises the age of marriage and so delays the child-bearing years.

A more radical approach to population control was the introduction of the one child policy in China
25% of the world’s population is Chinese In 1979 the government introduced the one child policy People who have more than 1 child pay big fines. Only single children get free education, health care and pensions

Effects of the Policy Has resulted in a high rate of infanticide (killing newborn babies) 90% of which were female as Chinese tradition values boys above girls But without the policy it is estimated there would be an extra 320million people in China Recently the government has started to relax this policy and focus more on the education method.

Population problems Young dependants put a strain on LEDCs….
High levels of education and health care are needed for children and babies. Most LEDCs cannot afford this Their populations will continue to grow as these young people reach child bearing age. A rapidly growing population needs housing and they will need employment as they grow up. These are serious concerns for LEDCs

Ageing populations – a population problem for MEDCs
High levels of health care are needed – long term care of the elderly can be expensive. Facilities such as public transport and sheltered housing will be needed. As more of the working population retire and move into this group of elderly dependants it will put an even greater strain on the ability of the country to pay pensions and provide for this section of the population. With declining birth rates some MEDCs encourage workers to migrate into the country to help relieve this financial burden. However can you think of companies or organisations that would welcome this ‘grey revolution’?

That completes this section on Population Change
Click this box to return to the main menu to choose another topic Click here to try a short test on what you have just learnt Click here to exit the program. Then why not have a look at the sample GCSE questions on Population.

Thank you for using this revision tool to help with your studies of Population.
Goodbye I hope you have found it useful.