9What does a successful farmer need? FarmingWhat does a successful farmer need?
10What does a successful farmer need? FarmingWhat does a successful farmer need?Land with tillable soilAdequate rainfall or irrigationAccess to machinery and suppliesA way to transport goods to marketA market for the goods
11Opportunities Available Land Sources: Homestead Act (from gov’t) Sales (from other land owners)
12Hardship Thick sod Lack of rainfall/water Social isolation Debt Low crop pricesHigh freight chargesExtreme weatherCrop-eating Insects
23Hardships Dangerous, exhausting work Competition for jobs kept wages low
24The Impact of Railroads Brought settlers westAllowed westerners to trade with the eastLargest landowner in the westResponsible for the creation on many townsEncouraged slaughter of buffaloAccelerated conflict with Native Americans
25The Indian Wars"It makes little difference, however, where one opens the record of history of the Indians; every page and every year has its dark stain. The story of one tribe is the story of all."--Helen Hunt Jackson
26Indian Wars: background In reality, Indians had been at war with white "invaders" since about 1493 when Columbus' men had their first clash with Native Americans.Indians in the American west had been isolated from the pressures of U.S. expansion until after the Civil War.
27Indian Wars: A Shift in Policy When expansion into the American west accelerated and the U.S. government changed its policy to "concentration." This meant moving Indians onto reservations.Some tribes peacefully signed treaties with the US government giving up their lands in exchange for promises of food and other payments. Other tribes fought for their lands.Life on reservations was worsened by corrupt Indian agents.
29Indian WarsBeginning in 1862, the U.S. army began a series of violent conflicts with various Native American tribes. Together, these conflicts are known as the "Indian Wars." The goal of U.S. policy was to force uncooperative tribes onto reservations and to secure western lands for white owners.
30The End Results All tribes were forced onto Reservations Traditional ways of life for Native Americans were endangeredSettlers gained access to the best Western lands
31The near-extinction of the bison Buffalo were hunted for sport, for their valuable furs, and as an intentional way to hurt Indian tribes that relied on the animal for survival.