Presentation on theme: "Indian Policy: A History. 1) 1820-1850: Old Policy One big reservation The goal was to push the tribes west of the Mississippi River, where Indians were."— Presentation transcript:
Indian Policy: A History
1) : Old Policy One big reservation The goal was to push the tribes west of the Mississippi River, where Indians were to live along side the Plains tribes, in the Great American Desert.
The Trail of Tears
2) : Cooperative Policy The government would make treaties with the tribes that allowed white settlers to pass safely through Indian lands, or make treaties In which tribes gave up land and moved farther west. Also, this policy provided for the building of forts and stationing of troops to protect settlers and enforce the treaties.
Problems with the Cooperative Policy Supplies promised to Indians in deals were often late or never showed. Many agents were corrupt. The Indians did not always receive the payments due as part of the treaties (food shortages resulted). What was the result? INDIANS REVOLT
3)Attempts at peace Peace Commission This commission tried to establish an agreement to end the fighting. Indians were told that they would be gathered together in large areas that would belong to them, and whites would not bother them: Reservations Result: The attempt failed.
4)The Indian Wars The new policy stated that treaty making was over. Indians would from this time be wards of the state. Smaller reservations were created. Indians were forced to settle on these reservations. Battles resulted
Examples of battles Battle of Little Big Horn the attempt to capture the Nez Perces Massacre at Wounded Knee
The Indians lose the war-why? 1)Advanced guns of the army; newly invented six-shooter. 2)Many white settlers were now on Indian territory. 3) Destruction of the Indian food supply-the buffalo.
Why did the buffalo disappear? 1)Development of the railroads. Workers used buffalo for food. 2)Buffalos were hunted for sport. 3)By 1871, buffalo skin were used for robes.
6) : Americanization The Dawes Act of 1887 began the new policy. The act assigned each family an 160 acre farm. After 25 years, the family was to receive the title to the land. At this time, the family would become US citizens.
What was the purpose of the Dawes Act? The purpose was seemingly to make up for the wrongs of the past. The reality was the act finished off the remaining ties by many to their culture.
7) The Indian New Deal This was an attempt by the government to rebuild the Indian tribes and tribal cultures.